The article reviews the development of paratransit-type public transport and transport policy of local authorities. In the introduction the paper briefly describes the history of paratransit, it’s positive and negative features and makes an overview of Russian and foreign studies. In the main part the case studies of Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) and Makhachkala (Russia) are performed. The paper analyses the development of paratransit route networks and the transport policy of public authorities of this cities. The gap between principal role of paratransit and the inertia of transport policy is revealed. In the final part the article provides recommendations to improve transport policy and transport regulatory system.
This paper describes the myth of the New Russia which is represented and constructed
in Zaryadye Park. Roundtables, interviews, observations and social network analysis show
that the park describes Russia using logically disconnected historical facts, “fragments of
Russia” and futuristic bionic architecture. Such contexts reveal the meta-modernism of
This article deals with the modern linguistic landscape of St. Petersburg, with a focus on the ways it represents the languages of migrants from Central Asia and China. Linguistic-landscape studies are traditionally believed to reflect the actual linguistic situation in a given region. Nevertheless, actual multilingualism of Russian cities, — resulting, for example, from migration to megalopolises — is not always reflected in the linguistic landscape, since both official language policy and a majority’s attitudes and linguistic ideologies can prevent such a reflection. This article is based on data gathered in 2016 during fieldwork in different parts of St. Petersburg (Devyatkino, Parnas, and Apraksin Dvor), and it analyzes directions of communication and main domains in which migrant languages can be used in written form and the level to which these languages can be found in observable and open urban spaces. As a result, this study of public signs, advertisements, signboards, and other written communication in the city’s public spaces not only provides us with information on languages other than Russian, but it evaluates the roles these languages have to play in the context of a domineering linguistic ideology of monolingualism that officially and popularly does not support language diversity
This article describes a number of research papers in the field of urban sound studies 2015–2018. The interdisciplinary journal Sound Studies was taken as a point of departure, however, papers from several other journals are also discussed. The manner of posing questions and research approaches are the main focus of the paper.
Urban environment quality and quality of living patterns are the key factors for Russian cities’ competitiveness increase. They both are to a large extent driven by the housing economy characteristics. The article provides analysis of basic trends in housing economy of Russian cities including:
• housing consumption;
• structure of housing and ownership rights;
• housing price dynamics and the level of housing affordability;
• condition of housing stock and utility infrastructure, investment in renovation of the housing stock;
• state of competition at hosing market and supply elasticity to demand for differentiated and good quality urban environment ;
• state regulation of the housing economy – support for demand and supply, taxation policies.
Excluded from the urban policy discourse during Soviet period, historical centers of Russian cities are of interest to private developers today. The current development of these territories leads to the loss of valuable morphological characteristics which have been formed evolutionarily: lot configuration and size, building height and density, etc.
The attitudes of public authorities towards the maintenance of historical territories today mainly comes down to the preservation of listed heritage buildings. The status of historical settlements is a new tool in Russian heritage preservation policies. It allows the regulation of infill development parameters in historical areas and thereby protects the historic environment as an entity. Heritage preservation restrictions, however, are considered an obstacle for urban development since the logic of conservation is opposed to that of development. Public authorities, private developers and local residents have little to no resources and incentives to develop territories in accordance with the imposed restrictions.
This article argues that despite the strengths of these tools, it is not enough when territory revitalization is the goal. Existing regulations should be expanded by a set of incentive measures to stimulate the revitalization of historical urban cores and turn heritage into a capitalized asset.
The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical underpinnings for elaborating an approach to the revitalization process. The authors appeal to urban morphology theory in order to determine the potential of historical environments. The second part is devoted to a review of best practices in the revitalization of historical centers. Third part of the article gives an overview of the current development practices of various stakeholders in the existing institutional context. The case of the historical center of Samara is used to illustrate the common phenomena.
Institutional economics is used to review the system of incentives and approaches to assessing the effects and to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the investment attractiveness of the territory and the development process as a whole.
This article presents the results of a study of the child-rearing practices of Russian-speaking migrant women living in Madrid, which include the organization of the daily life of children, the choice of educational and structured programs and institutions. The aim of the research is to study the influence of the features of the neighborhoods and migration specificity of families on the child-rearing practices. The empirical base of the research includes interviews with Russian-speaking parents and teachers or organizers of Russian structured programs for children, as well as the data from observations conducted during visits to these programs, meetings and walks with parents and their children. The results of the research demonstrate that the institutional resources of the neighborhoods can limit and determine the diversity and the choice of structured activities in which children are involved. Parents follow a number of strategies to get over the limited availability of resources and unfavorable living conditions. Migratory specificity of families, showed in the level of proficiency in the Spanish language, shared ideas about the importance of the transfer of the mother tongue to the child, orientation on the Russian-speaking community, can mediate the influence of the neighborhoods on thechild-rearing practices.
We consider turnstiles as an integral part of the passenger experience. Turnstiles are a control technology to decrease fare evasion, but also define traffic rules for the interaction between passengers in the transport space and which normalize the corporeality and body experience of passengers. Turnstiles turn the variety of passenger corporeality into the normalized units which form the calculated and controlled passenger traffic. At the level of passenger experience, turnstiles organize a special sequence of actions for passengers in the pre-and post-turnstile zones, serve as a meeting and farewell point, ensure the “fairness” of emerging landing lines and the choice of seats by passengers. Turnstiles also often serve as break points and interrupt the interaction between passengers. Breakdowns and unforeseen situations often happen with turnstiles. For smooth operation, they need help and understanding from passengers and staff. Some categories of passengers (children, “pouched”, elderly and large-sized) have difficulty passing through the turnstiles, causing inconvenience to themselves and others. Turnstiles have left a significant imprint on the passenger experience of Muscovites, thereby being a direct implementation of the transport policy for the formation of a new type of passenger. The empirical material of the study consists of videos of the practice of using turnstiles in various types of transport in Moscow, collected in December 2017 and in the spring of 2018.
Review on book written in 1935
Book Review “Transport Systems of Russian Cities: Ongoing Transformations”.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
There are two factors that are generally considered key in the formation of social networks. One is homophily or the tendency of similar individuals to connect with each and the other is geographical proximity. The roles of homophily and proximity, however, are rarely compared. This means that there are no good estimates of the relative importance of these two mechanisms. We use data from 631 schools of the Samara and Tomsk regions to compare the role of homophily by academic performance and interests with the role of geographical proximity in the formation of online social ties between students from different schools. We analyzed information on friendship ties between 20,000 users of VKontakte (the most popular social networking site in Russia) from these schools. We find that geographical proximity is the key factor in the formation of social ties: the probability of a friendship tie between geographically close schools is high (60–85%), but it rapidly decreases with distance and is less than 5% for schools that are far apart from each other. We also find that homophily plays a less important role although similarity in interests has a higher predictive power for the probability of a friendship tie than similarity in academic performance. The results are similar for both regions, which might indicate their universal nature. Our results indicate that, even in the digital age, the key factor in the formation of social ties is proximity while homophily determines social ties to a lesser extent.
The city center is at the core of urban and housing economics. Many models crucially depend on it. In a market economy, the location of urban amenities, especially eating establishments, closely correlates with that of the city center and, more generally, with the Central Business District (CBD). In a centrally planned economy, the spatial distribution of those amenities is determined by the central planner and can differ significantly from a market-based distribution. Using the case of St. Petersburg (Russia), we investigate changes in the spatial distribution of eating establishments resulting from the transition from a market economy to a centrally planned one and then again to a market economy. In addition, we explore the shifts of the city center between 1895 and 2017 using eating establishments as a proxy. The spatial distribution is analyzed using a 2-D kernel density estimation. We find evidence for a substantial reduction and dispersion of eating establishments during the Soviet period. We also establish that after the October 1917 Revolution the city center of St. Petersburg moved several kilometers to the north-east.
This article gives an account of residential patterns in the Moscow satellite city of Kotelniki, with a particular focus on the residential concentration of migrants and possible ethnic enclavization. The article draws on sociological research conducted using a variety of methods: in-depth and expert interviews, observation, and document analysis. It examines the history of Kotelnikiʼs urban development, the migration waves which formed its current population, the residential preferences and patterns of “migrants” and “locals”, and the factors of migrantsʼ residential concentration including its proximity to the “Sadovod” market and low-priced housing in newly built apartment blocks. In conclusion authors assert the need to better conceptualize the term “enclave” for it to be used in empirical studies, and identify areas for further research regarding places with a concentration of migrantʼ residents and, more broadly, migrantʼ residential patterns in Moscow and Russia.