In recent years, developed countries are increasingly debating about ethical consumption as a counteraction of civil society to the expansion of unsavory business practices which cause significant damage to the environment, people and animals. The ethical consumer practices are also gradually beginning to penetrate in developing countries which have weak civil society. The article presents the results of the first representative study of ethical consumption in Russia as an innovative practice of civil society. Factors affecting the inclusion of the Russians in the ethical consumer practices have been identified using the binary logit regression. It is shown that different types of civic activism outside the ethical consumption play an important role, but it is not а key factor. It is concluded that the development of ethical consumption can be a catalyst for the development of civil society in Russia.
The article considers the modern approaches to the understanding and measurement of the effectiveness of state power. The authors investigate the opportunities provided by Data Envelopment Analysis in measuring efficiency. Methods of the solution of up-to-date efficiency research tasks are analyzed. Tools proposed in article can become the basis for building a comprehensive model of the efficiency of public organizations.
Platforms as key players in multi-sided markets do not turn out to be the latest phenomenon in the economy. However, rapid development of digital technologies and widespread Internet access have raised a question on the need to determine their subject area, as well as the effects of their emergence and functioning. Platforms emerge in multi-sided markets, they link two or more groups of users, build their business models on network effects, and use non-neutral price structure to attract more users on both sided. Platform can connect different groups of users whose interaction with one another raises positive (consumers, producers, government) and negative (advertisers and platform users) indirect network effects. At the same time, connecting advertisers to the platform may, on the one hand, be associated with the fact that advertisers may assume that the viewers of the advertisement will make a purchase one day. On the other hand, viewers of the advertisement can watch it due to the Arrow information paradox. This paper while determining the characteristics of players in multi-sided markets proposes an approach to analyzing their coordination and distribution effects. The variance in the estimates of these effects may be associated with a disparity of distributional effects valuations, and, apart from this, it may be bounded to the interval of the study. These estimates are important in the light of a widespread debate in the academic and decision-making community on the need of changes in competition law enforcement regarding regulation of platforms.
The article deals with the social and political phenomena which are the subject of mutual studies of political science and law. The authors note the previous attempts of researchers to identify legal political science or political science of law as a separate interdisciplinary direction, formed at the intersection of legal and political sciences. However, the authors point out that at the moment the independence of legal political science or political science of law is not proven sufficiently, it is required to determine the field of study, to develop a methodology. Based on the analysis of legal acts, the history of their passing and implementation practices, the authors conclude that the focus of legal political science or political science of law must primarily be addressed in the analysis of the law-making issues and enforcement, the latter, in turn, can be classified into internal level / micro level (the transformation of rights in respect of individuals and organizations within the country) and the external level / macro level (implementation of international law at the national level). Concerning the content, legal political science or political science of law all of these may include such topics as the concept of universal human rights, transitional justice, corruption and anti-corruption, the sovereignty of States and globalization, “soft law”.