The effects of some natural and artificial factors on the thermal interaction between a pipeline and permafrost soil has been studied. A mathematical model describing the soil temperature profile, thawed soil subsidence and pipeline elevation has been proposed. A temperature profile of the soil around the pipeline has been determined through solving the heat conductivity equation. The analysis accounts for the thermal interaction between the pipeline and permafrost soil; soil surface heat exchange; and porous moisture phase transformation heat exchange. For displacement and stress-strain analysis a pipeline has been represented as an elastic endless beam exposed to complex loads. The thermal and mechanical pipeline to soil interaction analysis accuracy has been estimated as the surrounding soil temperature field, the thaw halo border, and the pipeline stress-strain state is determined. The error is estimated by analyzing the data obtained analytically and through experiments. The obtained accuracy is sufficient to apply the proposed model for long-term stress-strain state analysis of a pipeline in permafrost. The model can identify vulnerable permafrost pipeline sections, and forecast the scope of work for each pipeline segment.
The market of electric energy in the Krasnodar krai and the specific features of electric power sup ply in the Eisk region are analyzed. The basic aspects of designing wind power plants are considered. The main technical,
An actuating device complex motion mathematical model of automated vacuum processing equipment is developed. The model allows for controlling evenness of the thin filming aimed at improving its evenness. Manufacturing advantages of the coordinate actuating devices compared to planetary design are given, as well as main ways of controlling and improving vacuum thin film deposition evenness.
The paper presents an approach to quantitative estimation of socio-economic benefits from oil extraction (in the US). The approach explicitly distinguishes the contribution of non-institutional and institutional factors. Calculations show that in the United States the influence and dynamics of institutional factors are related to steady deterioration of natural conditions of oil extraction. In general, the US resource regime can be called stimulating, as is evidenced by a small proportion of adverse effects due to preservation of residual oil.
Polyarethane is widely used in construction for production of chemically persistent poured floor in industiral premises of oil and chemical complexes. Thier use is prospective for production of corrosion resistant coatings, paint-and-lacquer materials, clay and sealant compiunds and other modern materials.