The article deals with the organization and functioning of the risk management system in the sphere of state control. In Russia, a risk-based approach is being actively developed in some areas of public administration, but it is not universal. Full implementation of risk management systems will improve the efficiency of state inspection, as well as the comfort of doing business. The aim of the article is to summarize and analyze the Russian experience of risk management in state control, as well as the formation of a target model and proposals for its implementation.
The authors have proposed definitions of «risk» and «risk management system» that are applied to the sphere of state control (supervision). The article discusses two basic elements of risk management: risk assessment procedure and measures to minimize risk.
The article contains a description and classification of risks assessment, based on the analysis of the following elements: an object, the scale, the manner and method of evaluation. With regard to risk minimization measures the authors examined the existing differentiation of administrative regimes of the economic activities start, mandatory requirements and procedures of state control, based on the level of potential hazard controlled entity (object).
The article presents a general description of all the risk management systems, which are currently used in 12 kinds of control. The authors developed a target model of the risk-based approach in the sphere of state control, and formulated 10 basic principles, the implementation of which will create a high-performance risk management system in the monitoring activities.
The authors carry out a comparative analysis of management practices regional development due to the capitalization of cultural resources on the example of three European cultural centres - Stratford-upon-Avon, Weimar and Yasnaya Polyana. Structure relationship of key development actors within each of the three regions were analyzed by the method of «Environmental Profile, a comparative analysis was conducted using the theory of stakeholders, as well as territorial benchmarking. The authors conclude that the tourist industry has become a key tool for the capitalization of cultural heritage in all three regions. Management practice of capitalizing on the cultural heritage should ensure the transformation of the territory into a "tourist destination", which constitutes an inseparable from the attractive cultural value with a friendly and comfortable environment. Comparative analysis of the life-cycle stages of development destinations in Stratford, Weimar and Yasnaya Polyana that helped power them to tourism flows and earnings of the creative economy. The authors show that successful modern tourist destinations implement multi-stakeholder management practices to ensure the formation of a unique comfort and accessible landscapes, both tourists and local residents.
The paper discusses the practice of ‘state religious expertise’, i.e. a special form of applying expert knowledge in Russia, primarily for the purpose of registering religious organizations. Authors reveal the real place and functions of this institute, by analyzing data on the activities of special expert committees for the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation and its regional offices over the period 2009–2018, as well as on the interviews with religious studies specialists. Two main problems were found out: the low demand of this knowledge by the Ministry of Justice officials and the existence of expert committees with an obvious conflict of interest. The general number of expert examinations is small, and its significant part is unnecessary, being only a confirmation of the conclusions for which officials have enough of their own competence. Besides, the rules of ‘state religious expertise’ are flexible, and practices vary from one region to another, which puts local religious communities in unequal conditions. In summary, the work of expert committees often may be characterized as formal or fictitious, but it may be used, if necessary, as a barrier against unwelcome religious associations, thereby ensure state intervention in the sphere of religious freedom.
The creation of «Multifunctional centres of public services» (MFC) became a key area of administrative reform process in Russian Federation in 2008. The main role in launching MFC was given to the regions of Russia. Regional governments had to find a place, to hire labor, to provide communications and finance. But the requirement to provide federal services through MFC forced ministries and agencies to join the regional projects. In the article a common experience of federal government structures in dealing with MFC startup projects is reviewed. The key points of decisions (as the form of service provision, finance collaboration, team building and internal communication, PR and information support) are discussed, thus sketching out the best-practice and recommendations from a real experience.
The subject of the research is public assessment of civil servants’ performance in providing public services in the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation (FMS). The aim of the research is to determine the main factors that influenced the level of public satisfaction with public services. The research is based on the hypothesis that perception of the quality of public l services depends not only on their content and administrative provision, but also on the factors, which characterize civil servants’ performance as well as specific features of the territorial bodies of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation. The following factors are considered: satisfaction with the waiting time in queues, satisfaction with politeness and competence of civil servants, the number of employees of the territorial bodies of FMS, the income level of citizens in regions, the level of migration in regions and some other factors. To determine the significance of these factors the factor analysis method is used. The data are received from the federal information system «Vash kontrol’» and the Federal Statistics Service of the Russian Federation as they were in 2014. As a result of the factor analysis the most and the least satisfied recipients of public services are classified on the regional basis. The study highlights a great influence of the migration factor – the higher the level of migration in the region, the lower the citizens’ satisfaction with public services. The results of the study can serve as a basis for further research on the best regional practices of public services provision. Furthermore, they can help identify the regions in need of a more careful monitoring of public services provision. Citation: Reshetnikova, D.S. (2016). Faktory otsenki naseleniyem effektivnosti deyatel’nosti gosudarstvennykh grazhdanskikh sluzhashchikh pri okazanii gosudarstvennykh uslug [Factors of Public Assessment of Civil Servants’ Performance in Providing Civil Services]. Public Administration Issues, n. 2, pp. 131–164 (in Russian).
Based on the data from population surveys by Yuri Levada Analytical Center requested by HSE in 2011 and 2017, the article focuses on the tendencies and peculiarities of physical activity of the Russian young males and females from 16 to 24 years of age at the current stage. Empirical analysis has revealed the correlation between physical activity of respondents of both genders and such indicators as the subjective estimation of self-rated health, smoking, employment status, household income. At the same time, the analysis has not yielded the direct correlation between physical activity of the young Russians and their level of education, individual income and marital status. The governments of many countries have chosen a path of implementing the programs of lifestyle activation for the youth. The article contains the analysis of the globally spread measures of public policy aimed at stimulating the youth to engage in physical activity and sports. The article also stresses the most effective of those measures including national programs, informational guidelines, social advertisements, support through grants, development of sports infrastructure, and urban environment. The findings have facilitated proposing a range of recommendations for the public policy of the Russian Federation targeting lifestyle activation of the youth.
The article is based on the results of the research of community funds. Community funds are non-profitable organizations. Community funds accumulate and distribute the recourses donated to them by the commercial sector, authorities and private philanthropists. The recourses are directed to the community to solve its urgent problems. The article discusses the organizational features of the community funds as well as their specificity as grant-giving organizations. The article characterizes some particularities of the community funds and public authorities’ communications, and it also shows the influence that the economic crisis of 2009 has on their performance. The community fund technology is an alternative mechanism to increase efficiency of the state and municipal social sphere management. The community funds develop forms of social activity and civil participation due to the engagement of groups of philanthropists and citizens. Processes of philanthropy institutionalizing take place. The role of the community funds as support instruments to provide life quality, its social and economic elements on a certain territory, increases in situation of economic crisis.
Public health is mainly dependent on the lifestyle and habits adopted by the population. However, Russians traditionally don’t pay enough attention to the healthy lifestyle, as compared with other nations. Last two decades in Russia were marked by an increasing number of young smokers, alcohol abusers as well as the obese. This paper examines the youth’s attitudes towards smoking, alcohol abuse, nutrition and physical activity as the main elements of an individual lifestyle. We show how different factors impact young people’s choice of a lifestyle. The policy measures to stimulate a responsible behavior among young Russians are discussed.
The article says about the necessity to create an eff ective structure to counteract corruption. It should be based on the prevention principle, the absence of which is believed to be making it signifi cantly diffi cult to fi ght corruption in our country. Having analyzed the world experience in this fi eld, the author says that this structure can include some components which are capable to increase effi - ciency of the fi ght against corruption for a long period of time.
Information technologies are actively used by government agencies to interact with citizens in public administration. At the same time exploitation of advanced communication technologies through Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp requires developed communication capabilities of electronic platforms used for public participation. The article explores the features of e-participation platforms employed by public administration in Russia. It discusses the requirements for the features of e-participation platforms based on the recommendations from public administration theories and from the best practices of electronic interaction between citizens in social networks. On the basis of the requirements the study explores 37 web-sites tailored for interaction with citizens in public administration in Russia. The article concludes 9 of the web-sites to be considered as electronic platforms designed for public participation while all the rest are aimed at collecting complaints from citizens with no discussing the agenda and making joint decision on the topics. However, the features implemented at defined platforms do not correspond with the functionality available for interaction at modern social networks – it allows citizens to react to the agenda proposed by state authorities in a very restricted way (to vote or not). The article shows that the functionality of existing e-participation platforms in Russia is not supposed to narrow the scope of the government and to limit it to orchestration, but in opposite it demonstrates that the authorities are the only ones responsible for setting the agenda up and for devising the alternatives for voting with very limited reaction functionality for citizens. Having identified current features of e-participation platforms in Russia we assumed that their mission is to inform the citizens and educate them to participate (without active involvement in decision-making process). And this mission could be accomplished in alternative and more effective way without extra spending -by studying the experience of state bodies of other countries on the use of Facebook for the purposes of public participation. If e-participation platforms have another mission, for instance, to involve citizens in decision-making process, the paper suggests upgrading its features up to the level of the best practices of electronic communications which are already in use among the society.
The institution of instructions practiced in state governance is analyzed. The legal basis of the so called «manual control» is explained.
The article deals with the evolution of the implications and legal regulation of public services in the latest history of Russia. Within the framework of this evolution the institute of public services was actually appearing. It was set up as an instrument to facilitate becoming of the services market in the spheres of the executive power bodies’ activity and to restrain the power strive of such bodies. Understanding the essence of public services as a demand of citizens and their organizations for providing, confirming and changing their rights was formed. The main meaning of the legal regulation evolution in the field of public services was to form mechanisms for improving the quality of such services. Recognizing them as one of the public administration functions by law is going to be a perspective for developing a legal status for public services, according to the authors of the article.
Healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages and recruitment in rural and remote areas continues to be the challenge for all regions in Russia. The aim of the article is to evaluate "Zemsky Doctor" Federal program as well as to identify areas for improvement of current Federal, regional and municipal socio-economic programs and initiatives in order to overcome healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages. Measures of social support and economic incentives for physicians and medical nurses really helps to eliminate medical personnel deficit in rural and remote areas. The authors analyzed experiences of 20 regions with different security characteristics of the budgetary system. The study identified main perspective areas of improvement of regional, local programs and initiatives for healthcare professionals’ recruitment for rural and remote areas. Main perspective areas are target reception, co-financing of professional education and post-university training programs, additional scholarships and benefits, one-time "roll-up" and assistance in solving housing problems, assistance for obtaining postgraduate professional education, additional cash payments on a regular basis for rural physicians and medical nurses, cash prizes for winners of regional, municipal and local healthcare professional competitions, etc. The authors conclude that the administration of regional and municipal programs and initiatives in order to overcome healthcare professionals’ workforce shortages in rural and remote areas should be the separate area of personnel management policy in public health administration.
The article is devoted to a critically important, in the author’s opinion, issue of the ethical regulation of public servants’ o^ cial behavior. He considers the complex of ethical-legal mechanisms as one of the most eb ective ways in order to correct the obviously unsatisfactory current situation of public life in this c eld. As long as it is not only Russia’s trouble and many other countries pay considerable attention to ethical aspects, the author re] ects the situation in the frames of a broader theoretical position and also addresses the international experience. In particular, he gives much attention to Canada, where the ethical regulation of public service is developed su^ ciently well and the country has achieved serious success in this respect. Ethical codes are considered as «moral navigators» in the contemporary complicated world, because vitality and legitimity of a political system much depends on whether political institutions and behavior of high rank public o^ cials correspond to the prevailed public values and ideals, accord with the norms and standards of public morality, or they do not. A degree of public trust to holders of public posts depends critically on it. \ e administrative ethical codes 31 Obolonsky Alexander V. Ethics and responsibility of dib erent levels and the «ethical infrastructure» that provide their fulc llment have been thoroughly analyzed. Special attention is paid to the role of the leader, to moral self-restrictions of public servants and to exercising control over them. \ e balance between moral and legal norms has been considered in details, as well as the modern situation of Russia in this c eld.