Paper considers the efficiency of Russian court system and demand of economic agents for legal institutions. Analysis based on two empirical surveys of Russian firms in 2000 and 2007 focused on efforts to reform court system and the influence of state and enforcement agencies on firms’ behavior. Author notes the improvement of enforcement system in Russia in 2000s. However as before there are serious problems with corruption and inequality of state agencies and private firms in Russian courts.
The conflict between positive law and the idea of justice is the permanent driver for transitional social orders. The explanation of the Russian legal system as historical phenomenon is possible only in the context of evolving etymology of key notions of justice as moral value, legal phenomenon or historical tradition. On the basis of this approach the author reconstructs genuine characteristics of the Russian legal tradition, the stages of the transformation in process of modernization in the 18–19th centuries, the total destruction in the Soviet times and restoration in the Post-Soviet period. The current debate over law and legal consciousness reveals the importance of some elements of the national legal tradition but has not proved the conservative theory of path-dependence in Russian legal and political development. The author argues in favor of a new concept of justice which would be able to overcome the legal dualism, bridge the gap between positive law and conservative mental stereotypes in order to fulfill the necessary liberal social and political reform package.
The author considers historical evolution and contemporary understanding of the right to privacy, and also specially analyses the Federal Act on Personal Data (2006) in the context of its accordance with goals of the protection of human rights.
The research is focused on Russian students' attitudes to the past: the events in which they take pride and the events they deem shameful. The participants of the poll were 175 students from the leading Moscow universities. The results of the research show that students' attention is focused on two events of the XX century: the Great Patriotic War and the Stalinist repressions. The authors describe two ideological / value paradigms in youth' mind: "Soviet" and "anti-Soviet". These paradigms not only determine attitudes towards the key events of the past but also attitudes towards the present of the country.
This article explores the problem of the evolution of positions of leading political parties of Great Britain on the reform of the upper house of Parliament in the 1980-2000s, the process of formation and introduction The House of Lords bill, 1999.
n the 2000-2010s, the dynamics of the professional structure of Russia was characterized by the persisting trends of decrease in the number of skilled workers in the industrial sector and increase in the number of trade and service workers. However, in the 2000s a new trend has also developed: an increase in the share of specialists among the employed. In the 2010s this trend became even more prominent, reflecting the transition of Russian society to a new stage of economic and technological development. The population responded to this trend with a rapid increase in the share of people with higher education, which was far ahead of the increase in the number of jobs for highly qualified specialists. As a result, both employment at jobs that do not require higher education and unemployment have risen sharply among Russians with higher education. However, since people with higher education have the opportunity to choose the most attractive jobs in any professional classes, the aspiration of Russians to receive higher education has remained in place. All these trends have aggravated the problem of the “qualification pit” (skills mismatch), in which there are currently more than half of the working population in Russia. An important aspect of it is also the mass occurrence of mismatch between employment and specialization received during education, which has become the new norm for all professional classes. Due to unjustified inequalities in wages, universal deprofessionalization is taking place against the background of an increase in formal indicators of the education level. Among the imbalances in the development of the professional structure is also the growing socio-demographic asymmetry. The age gap between representatives of various professional classes and subgroups is growing, youth unemployment is still high even against the background of a labor shortage. The gender asymmetry of employment is also increasing; it is seen in the increasing feminization of all groups of “white-collar” employment against the growing share of men among skilled manual workers. This lead, among other things, to an increasingly privileged position of male specialists and an increase in the disbalance in the character of employment of men and women, which determines changes in their demographic behavior.
The study explores the impact of child-parent and child-peers value similarities and perceived psychological closeness of child to parent on the psychological well-being of children in Russian families in Latvia (N=224) using path analysis. The results have shown that perceived psychological closeness with parents positively related to life satisfaction and self-esteem of children. We found positive relationship between education of parents and child-parent Openness to change’ value similarity. Child-parent Openness to change’ value similarity doesn’t promote the self-esteem of children, whereas the similarity of these values with peers promotes better life satisfaction and self-esteem of children. Self-Enhancement value similarity with peers contributes to the self-esteem of children, and Self-Transcendence value similarity impedes the psychological well-being of children. The relationships between Conservation value similarity, life satisfaction, and self-esteem were non-significant. Overall child-parent value similarity is negatively related to the indicators of psychological well-being of children, while the overall value similarity with peers is positively related to the measures of psychological well-being.
The article deals with the so-called counter-sanctions (the ban on the import of most types of food from the US, EU countries and a number of other countries), introduced by Russia in 2014 in response to Western sanctions, their consequences and the reaction of the population to them. An accelerated rise in prices for analogues of goods banned for import, deterioration of their quality was noted. At the same time, a clear majority of the population of Russia supports the ban on import. In the article this fact is explained by a complex of national grandeur (“statehood”) as components of the national mentality that makes up the institutional core of the social order. In support of this conclusion, there are data from numerous sociological surveys, national elections, and presidential ratings. On the basis of the Caplan’s model of irrational behavior of the voter, it is shown that the demand for irrational behavior is limited by the costs (welfare losses) resulting from it. To effectively limit this demand, they must constantly increase. Otherwise, negative feelings from them are weakened and the demand for irrational behavior remains high. As a result, the stabilization of damage from counter-sanctions ensures their support by the population.