This is an analysis of social and professional characteristics, as well as value orientations of a modern educational innovator. The survey included participants of the 2014 Contest of Innovations in Education, with the sample of 304 respondents. Value orientations were revealed with the help of a questionnaire based on the Schwartz’s value theory. The results were compared to those of the European Social Survey of the Russian population conducted in 2012. Answers of the Contest participants differed dramatically from those of an average Russian, both in subjective importance of specific value orientations and in the structure of value orientation hierarchy. Innovators appreciated more often the values of self-sufficiency, kindness and universalism, as well as willingness to take risks in their professional life. They were less guided in their actions by the desire to take and to hold power which was not associated with their personal achievements. The survey demonstrated that innovations in education could be offered and implemented not only by experts, i.e. people working in educational institutions of different levels, but also by employees of companies that are not directly related to education, as well as by school and university students. Innovators have a better educational background and participate actively in supplementary education events.
Student flows in Russian education system Presented is a flow chart of students in the Russian education system in 2008. Shown are the flows between the main education levels as well as between the education system and the labor market. The chart can serve as a useful tool in analyzing the structure of demand for specific education levels and of education trajectories, as well as for estimating the funding needs of education system. The author provides a detailed analysis of the sources used to develop the chart, including a discussion of their specific features and limitations.
In 2016, Voprosy obrazovaniya Library was enriched with another book, the Russian edition of Philip W. Jackson’s classic book on school education, which was first published in 1968 and has become a bestseller for Western teachers and researchers. We introduce the reader to the foreword to this book written by professor Isak Froumin, who was lucky to know the author personally and who is discussing the relevance Jackson’s lessons maintain even nowadays.
Past 2016 was the year of the 120th anniversary of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. The anniversary was widely celebrated in academic circles, associated with his deyatelnosti, and the range of his interests and areas of humanitarian knowledge, in which a significant contribution Vygotsky, surprisingly wide. In Moscow in November last year was the big event - the international Congress for the 120th anniversary of L. S. Vygotsky. This is a series of parallel scientific events, which were held on different scientific areas: HSE, MSU, RGGU, msupe... Perhaps, it is a scientific act can be called unique. More than 80 years have passed since then, as HP Vygotsky completed his earthly life, but his thoughts, his view of the development continue to be relevant and interesting. The more interesting that there are research and new facts, to understand which the views of the scientist asking another required interpretation significance.
Based on the data of a representative poll performed by Institute of Megalopolis Humane Development in April of 2014 among 1516 parents of 1st through 11th grade students of Moscow schools, there are data being analyzed related to parents’ perception of preparation to and taking of SFT and USE. There are results given for groups of parents of school students of various ages: 1st‑4th, 5th‑6th, 7th‑9th and 10th‑11th grade students as well as a detailed information related to specific subjects of the school program. Most of those taking part in the poll believe that regular studies do not ensure passing of FST and USE with high grades with more than 30% of parents believing that additional classes would not allow passing with high grades either. Such expectations normally shape during the first years of their children spent in school. The major drawback for successful passing of FST and USE are believed to be poor training programs, whereas less than 20% refer to poor quality teaching. In parents’ view, students’ passing of FST and USE is accompanied by a series of challenges: starting from their persuasion being that exams are an inadequate tool for knowledge assessment to a fear of being unable to ensure they children a proper preparation to the exams. The authors believe that the issue of FST and USE has become a resource of social tension for families with children in a metropolis.
Some long-term and contextual reasons for deviation from the speech standard in written language of the native speaker who creates an academic text are analyzed. Mechanisms of typical agrammatisms are revealed, a classification of frequency errors is given, as well as some methods of stimulus material expansion which imply the gradual correction of academic literacy.
In the study at hand, we focus on how social contexts promote academic performance disparities between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school's average USE (Unified State Examination) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body as well as the schools' material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. We discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, and show how such measures could be used to identify cases of “resilient” and “failing” schools for the purposes of more accurate evaluations. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations of the current research and suggest several possibilities for empirical development.
The author analyzes from general perspectives of the management theory how the concept of separation of powers is implemented in education, and how it can be improved in the future. It is shown in the article that in a period since 2004, when an administrative reform started and the united Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation began its work, and till spring 2012, when the government of the Russian Federation changed, reauthorization from the legislative to the executive branches and from regional to federal authorities took place. Issues and risks of centralization of powers are considered with specific reference to management practices. Also, options for solving the problem of centralization of powers given by different power structures are analyzed, other solutions to this problem are offered.
The article presents the results of a large-scale survey conducted by Russian “Znanie” Society in 2017. The survey measured citizen awareness of local and national enlightenment initiatives, interest in specific topics and formats of educational events, motivation for learning and development, and willingness to pay for educational products, and it also tested the concept of an online enlightenment portal. We analyze the current globalization trends affecting the formats, topics and technology of enlightenment as well as educational niches that could be of public interest and of benefit to the digital future. Conclusions are made about the most in-demand fields of study and format preferences in learning and development.
Hindering competitors learning and «Trojan education» in social interactions One of the most efficient ways to render a competitor unable to cope with the rapidly changing world is to taper with their ability to learn new activities. In education sphere, the competition takes the form of obstructing a competitors learning, or of «Trojan education»: the competitor is covertly taught something unprofitable, harmful or dangerous for them, but suits the interests of those who organize the education. Examples of the hindering of learning are given, a classification of types of «Trojan education» is provided, possible theoretical approaches to the problem are laid out, and some results of empirical studies are analyzed.
Russian universities are tasked to reach the world level in the development of science and education, resulting in numerous innovations in them. Specificity of high schools staff is that highly qualified specialists, one of the characteristics that are open to the new. At the same time, researchers have observed resistance to innovation on the part of the faculty. Some researchers divide university teachers into two groups in terms of the basic identification: those who identify themselves with the organization, and those who are committed to the profession. At the same time it is concluded that the commitment of the teaching profession are more likely to support innovation. In contrast, the article argues that both the identification may be a factor as the resistance, and innovation. On the other hand, innovation resistance may be due to the scale and pace of change. In the case of permanent, large-scale changes destroyed the conditions of professional activity. This creates the need to choose between the organizational and professional identities, as well as a source of resistance to innovation on the part of the teaching staff. Resistance to innovation can be attributed not only the characteristics of the staff, as the scale and pace of change. In the case of permanent, large-scale changes destroyed the conditions of professional activity. This creates the need to choose between the organizational and professional identities, as well as a source of resistance to innovation on the part of the teaching staff. In our view, a significant problem for the university is to hold professionals who, first of all, identify themselves with the professional community. This problem is exacerbated in the innovation process. Under what conditions is a professional willing to identify themselves with the organization? When he is ready to support innovation? These are key questions in this article.
The article presents the results of an empirical study performed in 2004. After analyzing the collated data, the authors form a portrait of the professional practice of college teachers. They analyze the motivation and role patterns that serve as a conventional norm for college teachers. The external conditions of college teaching are investigated as well. The research has discovered both positive and negative tendencies in teachers professional activities. The authors have also been able to find ways of overcoming the problems they identified, and these approaches could enhance the ongoing reforms in higher education.
An accreditation system and professional standards of pedagogical departments are considered, as well as some innovations in teacher training in the USA. The experience of American higher education institutions is analyzed with regard to main guidelines of the pedagogical education potential reform in Russia.