The article proposes application of the level approach to attention research. Four basic principles of levelbased architecture of attention are derived from theoretical premises of the level approach to cognition and the psychology of attention as well as from empirical data. The author offers a variant of empirical research program which is based on the logic of the level approach. Finally the 5 level model of attention processes organization is proposed on the basis on experimental data. The article also contains examples of author's empirical studies which are interpreted in the level approach framework. The first study demonstrates the functioning of the redundancy principle (which is one the basic principles stated in study) in the visual inspection tasks. The second study shows the differences in the efficiency of memorizing the same material and the differences in experiencing of subjective confidence in mnemonic judgments depending on the leading level of attention in task solving.
The well-known modern dimensional models of affect include two or three dimensions. They are typically based on self-reports using English emotion terms. It remains unclear to what extent these models can be applied to different cultures and languages. The present study is aimed at finding the dimensions underlying the descriptions of emotional states in Russian and suggests a structural model of affect based on these findings. At the first stage, a comprehensive list of Russian nouns denoting emotional states was compiled. It comprised 330 words and was reduced to a list of 56 words. At the second stage, participants rated their emotional states using this list. The exploratory factor analysis yielded three dimensions that underlay participant descriptions of the emotional states – negative affect with low activation, positive affect with high activation, and tension. This structure has at least three notable features. First, valence is not a bipolar factor like in some other structural models of affect. Instead, it splits into two orthogonal factors. Second, valence is somewhat related to arousal, namely positive affect is associated with high arousal and negative affect with low arousal. Third, emotional states related to tension and uncertainty form a separate factor. This factor presumably reflects pure tension independent from valence. This model can be used for developing Russian-based measures for the assessment of mood.
The article is about the content and the role of the outdoor pastimes in socialization of children and teenagers from different generations. The results of the content-analysis of the survey are presented, which was composed by the two specially developed questionnaires, filled in by 251 respondents of various ages. The main activities are considered that constitute children’s outdoor pastimes. Five main categories are identified: games (with rules, sport games, role plays etc.); exploration of environment (experiments, searches, gathering, construction etc.); risk (various risky episodes); communication with peers; culturally mediated activity (visits to museums, skating rings, etc.). The main constituents of each of five categories and their representation among answers of the adult and adolescent samples are described. The dynamics of the children’s outdoor pastime is characterized by the social tendencies of the XX and XXI centuries, such as the increase of social tension and uncertainty, urbanization, overpopulation, etc. The differences in the outdoor pastimes between generations are shown, which lie in the chronology of mastery of the outdoor space and the content of children’s outdoor pastimes. The role of the outdoor pastimes in socialization of children and teenagers is discussed. The areas of the main types of children’s outdoor activity are characterized, as well as the degree of awareness and control by parents over the children’s activities, versions of parental rules and restrictions on children’s moves and activities. The way how the idea of the world that is appealing and encourages knowledge changes into the idea of its dangerousness, is viewed. The perspectives of the further psychological research in this area are described.
Mind-wandering is a specific state of consciousness, during which attention fully or partially switches from perception of external sensory information to inner mental processes. This state is largely spontaneous, and its content usually cannot be consciously controlled. Thoughts during mind wandering are generated by endogenous mental processes focusing on goals of high personal significance. These thoughts adversely interfere with processing of incoming information, thus leading to decreased efficacy of the ongoing activity, resulting in attentional lapses and errors. Dreaminess as a personality trait is directly related to mind wandering.
Switching to the mind-wandering state is related to competition between the motivational value of this process with the motivational value of current explicit activities, and it depends on cognitive (executive) control processes. The motivational value of mind wandering itself depends not only on the personal significance of the current thought content; this state appears also to be one of the basic human needs proving humans with the analysis of past experience and planning future activities, and thus is highly advantageous in a long-term perspective.
Mind-wandering is closely related to a number of other psychological phenomena such as reflection, metacognition (meta-consciousness), and mindfulness. The current review distinguishes between these phenomena and presents an approach to consider mind wandering a distinct process hallmarked by adverse effects on the ongoing activity.
The article deconstructs the frames of homosexuality by society, the authorities and the homosexuals themselves because of legislative prohibition of “homosexual’s propaganda” based on the interpretations of the relevant cases. The anti-propaganda law has identified defined the main trend in the perception of homosexuality as a deviation, but did not produce new values, as the power is not given full rights to framing ideas about homosexuality. On the one hand, we observe the articulation of the negative-attitude towards homosexuality in the authority’s discourse and negatively biased part of society. On the other hand, we can see changes of homosexuals’ attitudes and formation gay-friendly community. Framing focused public attention on the problems of the homosexual community and has opened the possibility to recognition of sexual minorities. A dynamic approach frame of analysis allows us to consider changes frames about homosexuality. The government cannot framing homosexuality singlehanded because of the ambiguity and instability of values. However, the final recognition of homosexuality at this stage of country development would not have been possible. It is necessary to have scientific discussion and public awareness of demedicalisation and depathologization and desexualisation of homosexuality. Nevertheless, the process of discussion of homosexuality in Russian society is just beginning.
The focus of the paper is the contribution of personality resources (optimism, hardiness, tolerance to ambiguity, self-efficacy, purpose in life), to the dynamics of subjective well-being under the pressure of economic crisis. As expected, personality resources have both filtering and buffering functions, influencing the subjective impact of economic crisis upon the life circumstances as well as subjective well-being. 126 adult Muscovites participated in the first wave of the study during the fervor of the crisis in Russia in Spring 2009 filling out the questionnaires addressing personal resources, subjective well-being, vitality, and questions about the impact of economic crisis on their life circumstances. In the second wave 18 months later the levels of subjective well-being and vitality were measured again in 86 of the participants. The results showed that the effect of the economic crisis was associated with personality resources more than with socialdemographic data. The filtering function was revealed only for purpose in life and self-control coping while for hardiness, optimism and planning coping the effect was much weaker. Buffering function showed itself more pointedly than filtering one. Moreover, the buffering function was shown for all the resources separately as well as for integral index of personality resources (IPR). However, buffering function was revealed only regarding the dynamics of subjective well-being as a dependent variable, but not for the dynamics of vitality. In particular, the subjective wellbeing of those who had low level of IPR depended more on the effect of economic crisis than in those who had high level of IPR. Even more, in the second wave for the participants who reported being highly affected by the crisis but had a high level of IPR showed high level of subjective well-being