We often change our decisions and judgments to conform with normative group behavior. However, the neural mechanisms of social conformity remain unclear. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that conformity is based on mechanisms that comply with principles of reinforcement learning. We found that individual judgments of facial attractiveness are adjusted in line with group opinion. Conflict with group opinion triggered a neuronal response in the rostral cingulate zone and the ventral striatum similar to the "prediction error" signal suggested by neuroscientific models of reinforcement learning. The amplitude of the conflict-related signal predicted subsequent conforming behavioral adjustments. Furthermore, the individual amplitude of the conflict-related signal in the ventral striatum correlated with differences in conforming behavior across subjects. These findings provide evidence that social group norms evoke conformity via learning mechanisms reflected in the activity of the rostral cingulate zone and ventral striatum.
Housing construction in the Moscow urban agglomeration is the main incentive mechanism for migration inflow via the lowering of such important barrier as housing prices. There is a positive feedback between the extensive development of the Moscow urban agglomeration and migration inflow to the metropolitan area, leading to hyperconcentration of population and economic activity. Theoretical analysis has shown that there is an equilibrium ratio between the new housing supply and the net migration into the Moscow metropolitan area. Empirical evidence shows that the ability of the Moscow urban agglomeration to accumulate migration in the 2000s at the respective rate of construction fell by half compared to the 1990s. Migration inflow is mostly contributed by extensive model of agglomeration development and urban sprawl due to the dominance of large-scale economy-class construction projects on unoccupied lands in a 30-km zone between the Moscow Automobile Ring Road (MKAD) and the Moscow Small Ring Road (MMK). The construction in this zone is a key regulator of the migration balance in the Moscow urban agglomeration and at the national level. Extensive development is subsidized by regional and federal budgetary investments, including transportation infrastructure, which contradicts state efforts to mitigate interregional inequality through fiscal redistribution.
The possible impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the main components of CO2 and H2O fluxes between the tropical rainforest and the atmosphere is investigated. The fluxes were continuously measured in an old-growth mountainous tropical rainforest in Central Sulawesi in Indonesia using the eddy covariance method for the period from January 2004 to June 2008. During this period, two episodes of El Niño and one episode of La Niña were observed. All these ENSO episodes had moderate intensity and were of the central Pacific type. The temporal variability analysis of the main meteorological parameters and components of CO2 and H2O exchange showed a high sensitivity of evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) of the tropical rainforest to meteorological variations caused by both El Niño and La Niña episodes. Incoming solar radiation is the main governing factor that is responsible for ET and GPP variability. Ecosystem respiration (RE) dynamics depend mainly on the air temperature changes and are almost insensitive to ENSO. Changes in precipitation due to moderate ENSO events did not have any notable effect on ET and GPP, mainly because of sufficient soil moisture conditions even in periods of an anomalous reduction in precipitation in the region.
We performed constant reservoir composition molecular dynamics (CRC-MD) simulations at 323 K and 124 bar to quantitatively study the partitioning of fluid species between the nano- and mesopores of clay and a bulk reservoir containing an equimolar mixture of CO2 and CH4. The results show that the basal (001) and protonated edge (010) surfaces of illite both demonstrate a strong preference for CO2 over CH4 adsorption; that the (001) surfaces show a stronger preference for CO2 than the (010) surfaces, especially with K+ as the exchangeable cation; and that the structuring of the near-surface CO2 by K+ is stronger than that by Na+. The protonated (010) surfaces have a somewhat greater preference for CH4, with the concentration near them close to that in the bulk fluid. The effects of the surfaces on the fluid composition extend to approximately 2.0 nm from them, with the fluid composition at the center of the pore becoming essentially the same as the bulk composition at a pore thickness of ~5.7 nm. The preference of nano- and mesopores bounded by clay minerals for CO2 over CH4 suggests that injection of CO2 into tight reservoirs is likely to displace CH4 into larger pores, thus enhancing its production.
Mutations in transmembrane (TM) domains of receptor tyrosine kinases are shown to cause a number of inherited diseases and cancer development. Here, we use a combined molecular modeling approach to understand molecular mechanism of effect of G370R and A391E mutations on dimerization of TM domains of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). According to results of Monte-Carlo conformational search in the implicit membrane and further molecular dynamics simulations, TM dimer of this receptor is able to form a number of various conformations, which differ significantly by the free energy of association in a full-atom model bilayer. The aforementioned mutations affect dimerization efficiency of TM segments and lead to repopulation of conformational ensemble for the dimer. Particularly, both mutations do not change the dimerization free energy of the predominant (putative “non-active”) symmetric conformation of TM dimer, while affect dimerization efficiency of its asymmetric (“intermediate”) and alternative symmetric (putative “active”) models. Results of our simulations provide novel atomistic prospective of the role of G370 and A391E mutations in dimerization of TM domains of FGFR3 and their consecutive contributions to the activation pathway of the receptor.
The summary paper argues that the phenomenon of male alliance (friendship) emerges as a consequence of mutual preference demonstrated by male individuals - both human and animal, - and such preference can be empirically captured. Friendly relations between men are built on two different foundations: (1) the principle of biological and social similarity and (2) the principle of psychological complementarity of the alliance members. Friendship is predominantly formed between boys and men of the same ethnic (racial) origin, similar age, behavior, and common social background. By contrast, psychologically friends are selected based on the complementarity of their temperament and main personality traits, such as ergonicity, sthenicity, emotionality, neophobia/neophilia, extraversion/introversion, dependence/independence of behavior, and dominance/submissiveness. These principles trigger the following key effects: a person is more likely to develop an individual preference and find a friend in childhood, and the number of potential friends is very limited.
The aim of this study was to estimate dependence of saccadic latency during stimulation of the dominant and subdominant eye in various conditions of presentation of target and distracting stimuli.
Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we describe the structure and pharmacology of a recombinant analogue of SLURP-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a ‘three-finger’ fold of SLURP-2 with a conserved β-structural core and three protruding loops. Affinity purification using cortical extracts revealed that SLURP-2 could interact with the α3, α4, α5, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits, revealing its broader pharmacological profile. SLURP-2 inhibits acetylcholine-evoked currents at α4β2 and α3β2-nAChRs (IC50 ~0.17 and >3 μM, respectively) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, at α7-nAChRs, SLURP-2 significantly enhances acetylcholine-evoked currents at concentrations <1 μM but induces inhibition at higher concentrations. SLURP-2 allosterically interacts with human M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) that are overexpressed in CHO cells. SLURP-2 was found to promote the proliferation of human oral keratinocytes via interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the ‘classical’ orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs.
The variant His at codon 48 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1B) results in more efficient ethanol metabolism than with the “typical” codon 48Arg. In this study we introduced selection properties of Arg48His genotypes of ADH1B and estimated fitness in four ethnic-geographical clusters in Asia. Population genetics models were employed that derive observed gene frequencies from fitness relationships among genotypes, to infer the selection pattern of polymorphisms in an indirect manner. The data were analyzed using the model of “complete stationary distribution” by Wright that takes into account random genetic drift, pressure of migrations, mutations, and selection as influential factors of gene frequency. We found that the different population groups showed some variation in the types of selection for Arg48His. Han Chinese from eastern and southeastern China and the Japanese and Korean populations showed stabilizing selection, while the groups from Central Asian and Indochina showed divergent selection. However, all the groups demonstrated a strong positive selection for Arg48His.
Although semantic processing has traditionally been associated with brain responses maximal at 350-400 ms, recent studies reported that words of different semantic types elicit topographically distinct brain responses substantially earlier, at 100-200 ms. These earlier responses have, however, been achieved using insufficiently precise source localisation techniques, therefore casting doubt on reported differences in brain generators. Here, we used high-density MEG-EEG recordings in combination with individual MRI images and state-of-the-art source reconstruction techniques to compare localised early activations elicited by words from different semantic categories in different cortical areas. Reliable neurophysiological word-category dissociations emerged bilaterally at ~ 150 ms, at which point action-related words most strongly activated frontocentral motor areas and visual object-words occipitotemporal cortex. These data now show that different cortical areas are activated rapidly by words with different meanings and that aspects of their category-specific semantics is reflected by dissociating neurophysiological sources in motor and visual brain systems.
A new statistical approach to alignment (finding the longest common subsequence) of two random RNA-type sequences is proposed. We have constructed a generalized ‘dynamic programming’ algorithm for finding the extreme value of the free energy of two noncoding RNAs. In our procedure, we take into account the binding free energy of two random heteropolymer chains which are capable of forming the cloverleaf-like spatial structures typical for RNA molecules. The algorithm is based on two observations: (i) the standard alignment problem can be considered as a zero-temperature limit of a more general statistical problem of binding of two associating heteropolymer chains; (ii) this last problem can be generalized naturally to consider sequences with hierarchical cloverleaf-like structures (i.e. of RNA type). The approach also permits us to perform a ‘secondary structure recovery’. Namely, we can predict the optimal secondary structures of interacting RNAs in a zero-temperature limit knowing only their primary sequences.
Objectives: Men and women accurately assess male physical strength from facial and body morphology cues.Women’s assessments of male facial attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance correlate positively with male physical strength. A positive relationship also has been reported between physical strength and attractiveness of men’s dance movements. Here, we investigate men’s and women’s attractiveness, dominance, and strength assessments from brief samples of male gait. Methods: Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured in 70 heterosexual men and their gait was motion-captured. Men and women judged 20 precategorized strong (high HGS) and weak (low HGS) walkers on attractiveness, dominance, and strength, and provided a measure of their own HGS. Results: Both men and women judged strong walkers higher on dominance and strength than weak walkers. Women but not men judged strong walkers more attractive than weak walkers. These effects were independent of observers’ physical strength. Conclusions: Male physical strength is conveyed not only through facial and body morphology, but also through body movements. We discuss our findings with reference to studies suggesting that physical strength provides information about male quality in contexts of inter- and intrasexual selection.
Background: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality rates were greater in men. However, sex differences in various metrics of stroke burden on a global scale have not been a subject of comprehensive and comparable assessment for most regions of the world, nor have sex differences in stroke burden been examined for trends over time. Methods: Stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates. Analysis was performed separately by sex and 5-year age categories for 188 countries. Statistical models were employed to produce globally comprehensive results over time. All rates were age-standardized to a global population and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were computed. Findings: In 2013, global ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both sexes (1990 male IS incidence 147.40 (95% UI 137.87-157.66); 1990 female IS incidence 113.31 (95% UI 103.52-123.40)), but the only significant change in IS incidence was among women. Changes in global HS incidence were not statistically significant for males (1990 = 65.31 (95% UI 61.63-69.0), 2013 = 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)), but was significant for females (1990 = 64.892 (95% UI 59.82-68.85), 2013 = 45.48 (95% UI 42.427-48.53)). The number of DALYs related to IS rose from 1990 (male = 16.62 (95% UI 13.27-19.62), female = 17.53 (95% UI 14.08-20.33)) to 2013 (male = 25.22 (95% UI 20.57-29.13), female = 22.21 (95% UI 17.71-25.50)). The number of DALYs associated with HS also rose steadily and was higher than DALYs for IS at each time point (male 1990 = 29.91 (95% UI 25.66-34.54), male 2013 = 37.27 (95% UI 32.29-45.12); female 1990 = 26.05 (95% UI 21.70-30.90), female 2013 = 28.18 (95% UI 23.68-33.80)). Interpretation: Globally, men continue to have a higher incidence of IS than women while significant sex differences in the incidence of HS were not observed. The total health loss due to stroke as measured by DALYs was similar for men and women for both stroke subtypes in 2013, with HS higher than IS. Both IS and HS DALYs show an increasing trend for both men and women since 1990, which is statistically significant only for IS among men. Ongoing monitoring of sex differences in the burden of stroke will be needed to determine if disease rates among men and women continue to diverge. Sex disparities related to stroke will have important clinical and policy implications that can guide funding and resource allocation for national, regional and global health programs.
Hadal ecosystems are found at a depth of 6,000 m below sea level and below, occupying less than 1% of the total area of the ocean. The microbial communities and metabolic potential in these ecosystems are largely uncharacterized. Here, we present four single amplified genomes (SAGs) obtained from 8,219 m below the sea surface within the hadal ecosystem of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). These SAGs are derived from members of deep-sea clades, including the Thaumarchaeota and SAR11 clade, and two are related to previously isolated piezophilic (high-pressure-adapted) microorganisms. In order to identify genes that might play a role in adaptation to deep-sea environments, comparative analyses were performed with genomes from closely related shallow-water microbes. The archaeal SAG possesses genes associated with mixotrophy, including lipoylation and the glycine cleavage pathway. The SAR11 SAG encodes glycolytic enzymes previously reported to be missing from this abundant and cosmopolitan group. The other SAGs, which are related to piezophilic isolates, possess genes that may supplement energy demands through the oxidation of hydrogen or the reduction of nitrous oxide. We found evidence for potential trench-specific gene distributions, as several SAG genes were observed only in a PRT metagenome and not in shallower deep-sea metagenomes. These results illustrate new ecotype features that might perform important roles in the adaptation of microorganisms to life in hadal environments.
This article defines the framework for identifying social and economic challenges that the timber industry currently faces in the regions of Northern European Russia. The analysis of identified problems on a regional and local scale for the case of Kostroma oblast is presented. The main institutional shifts during the
1990s–2000s are discussed, along with economic problems of regional timber industry systems and their social implications, as well as how companies and rural communities of Kostroma oblast have adapted to the challenges of the ongoing economic recession in 2009.
Issues of interrelations between climate and land ecosystems (mainly, their basic component: vegetative land cover) are considered in the paper. The hysteresis effect, which manifests itself in the dynamics of biome boundaries, is described on both a global and a regional scale and based on data analysis of the primary production of aboveground phytomass and evaporability. The work helps reveal centers of interannual stability of the onset of phenological events throughout the territory of European Russia and study regularities in their shifts during the vegetation period. The interannual temporal variability in the onset of natural events is shown to remain within the range of climatic variables. It is established that the temporal patterns for the onset of many spring events have advanced to earlier dates over the past decades (whereas those for autumn events have shifted to later dates) and the vegetation periods have extended, e.g., by more than ten additional days in the northern part of European Russia. However, phenological responses to global warming show differences across regions and groups of organisms, which evidences that the biota responds as a whole to presentday climate changes in different ways.
This paper describes a space experiment that is planned to be performed within the framework of the Russian project of the microsatellite CHIBIS AI to meaure ionospheric signal delays to determine the electron density and spatial fluctuations of the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma. The measurements will be conducted by the phase interferometer method at two levels using signals from the onboard in-phase transmitters and GPS/GLONASS signals. The location of the radiation sources at two levels will make it possible to separate plasma variations in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere-plasmasphere. The experimental results are of interest both for solving fundamental problems of near-Earth plasma physics and applied problems to improve positioning accuracy using global navigation systems.
This paper describes a space experiment that is planned to be performed within the framework of
the Russian project of the microsatellite CHIBIS AI to meaure ionospheric signal delays to determine the
electron density and spatial fluctuations of the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma. The measurements
will be conducted by the phase interferometer method at two levels using signals from the onboard in-phase
transmitters and GPS/GLONASS signals. The location of the radiation sources at two levels will make it pos-
sible to separate plasma variations in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere–plasmasphere. The experi-
mental results are of interest both for solving fundamental problems of near-Earth plasma physics and applied
problems to improve positioning accuracy using global navigation systems.