An integrated volume planning in the form of sales and operations planning is considered as a default universal method applicable to any business in any industry. Meanwhile, numerous researches on implementation of this process focus mainly on the downstream industries, such as automotive, FMCG etc, leaving the upstream extractive industries without due attention. But the latter industries also need a managerial mechanism allowing foreseeing and reacting to the expected imbalance between forecasted demand and resources available to fulfill it.
Thus, this article reviews necessity and specifics of sales and operations planning in gold mining holdings. The specifics include, firstly, the rules of the demand formation and prolonged supply deficit on the market, and secondly, the need to involve numerous business units of vertically integrated business structure into the planning process. Basing on the specifics revealed an aggregated model of planning process is proposed and main questions to deal with on each step of the process are articulated. The model proposed differs from the standard one by
(a) the stages sequence: particularly, new product and demand planning are proposed to be held in parallel to each other, and operations planning starts from the definition of mining volumes and only then procedes to the processing capabilities;
(b) planning objects on each stage: for instance, new product planning should focus on new gold ore minings, and demand planning – on forecasting of the price rather than demand volume;
(c) an additional planning contour on the level of business units, in line with the main process flow on the corporate level.
During the last fifteen years wholesalers faced a great number of challenges including the desire of production companies to establish direct contacts with clients, bypassing wholesalers, and weakening suppliers influence. So, wholesalers started to find the way out of this situation. Some companies have changed their development course and strategy, others have begun to look for internal reserves to overcome hardships and to restrict their business in order to adapt to new conditions. One of the universal methods that can improve the efficiency of the company is a Sales and Operations Planning. Nowadays implementation of S&OP is one of the main trends in different branches of industry such as FMCG, vertically integrated fields of heavy engineering, automotive and aircraft industry and some others.
Wholesalers are in need of the mechanism that would allow them to plan their activities for several months ahead, basing on the current business conditions in industry, market forecasts and the analysis of available resources. Considering the fact that the ability to respond to the demand for the wholesale company is of a crucial importance to provide stable further development of the company and increase the resource efficiency, Sales and Operations Planning process implementation seems to be extremely appropriate for the wholesale company.
The main features and prerequisites of the organization of Sales and Operations Planning for enterprises of wholesale trade are described in the article. The general algorithm the Sales and Operations Planning cycle for the wholesale company is also represented and the participants of the S&OP process and their roles are described. Furthermore, the peculiar features of Sales and Operations Planning for various supply chain configurations for the wholesalers are additionally discussed in the article.
Problems of terminology of logistics both in the general plan, and in a context of application of terms and developments of a conceptual framework to objects of logistic infrastructure, in particular are considered: to the logistic centers, terminals, warehouses, etc. The critical analysis of a conceptual framework of the modern logistics presented in the Russian textbooks and manuals is given.
Using the example of international road carriers, we consider approaches to assessing the complex indicator of competitiveness. Based on a sample of the performance results of the best transport companies from different countries, a comparison is made, and the factors that influence the change in indicators are determined. The best indicator values are set, which can serve as a guide for international road transportation companies. Based on the analysis of road transport performance indicators in the EEU countries, it was revealed that there are differences in the development of this type of activity, but all countries are characterized by an unsatisfactory state of the vehicle fleet. The change of generations of equipment in road transport is characterized by a short period, which is only 4 years, with an average change of 8-10 years. Problems with updating the car fleet lead to the fact that six generations of vehicles are simultaneously operating on the market. The paper offers a tool for determining the gap at the level of a country or individual enterprise from the market leaders.
In this study were investigated methods for assessing market openness and were determined the basic lawsof the bilateral agreements development between the parties.Careful attention was paid for the method QUASAR? its use for the market openness evaluation of transportation by air market,transportation algorithm of the method to freight services road market. In addition recomendations were allocated for furthe development of the freight road market.
The article discusses the features of the practical implementation of the concept of supply "just in sequence» (JIS). Relevance of the topic due to the need to improve the traditional methods of supply in connection with the expansion of the range of consumer preferences in the highly competitive market and the need to reduce logistics costs. The general principles and the practical results of the implementation of JIS-deliveries on the example of automobile plants are given. The formulas to calculate the costs per unit of JIS-deliveries are given. The analysis of the economic efficiency of JIS- deliveries compared to deliveries "just in time» (JIT) is made. The findings suggest that the compact arrangement of products supplied to the JIS-carts, and their turnover can reduce the cost per unit of delivered products several times. In addition, the application of the concept of JIS-deliveries brings significant economic advantages as a result of logistics "pull" techniques and lean manufacturing that can reduce buffer zones for storage of semi-finished products and reduce storage areas for delivered products. According to the criterion of logistics costs per unit of output, investigated the optimal scope of JIS - deliveries depending on transport distances. The study showed that the JIS-deliveries over short distances (up to 10km) are more beneficial than those deliveries over long distances. The reasons of reducing the effectiveness of the JIS - deliveries over long distances are given as a result of violation of the principle of "through-load unit." Practical recommendations are given for the broad implementation and improvement of economic efficiency of JIS-deliveries; the requirements to unified information system are formulated.
It is shown that one way to overcome the negative impact of the crisis is to build a strate-gy for supply chain management (SCM). Designated a set of factors motivating companies to enter the level of institutional coordination and integration, the underlying SCM. Select the ex-ample of some typical disturbances in supply chains associated with the economic crisis. The ability of companies to respond to the demand determines the level of integration and technolo-gical flexibility in solving problems of SCM. It is shown that changes in consumer preferences encourage companies to reconfigure the supply chain. All of these processes occupy a key posi-tion in the strategic planning of supply chains.
In the article it is studied the terminology and clarified the concept of «Best Practice» which means the best business practices in logistics and SCM. It is defined constraints and specific factors of best practices analysis and implementation. Best practices in the field of logistics and SCM in such companies as “Prologis” and “Gartner Research” as well as the project “MIT 2020 Council” and prepared by European Logistics Association project “Best Log” are studied as specific examples.
It is shown that in the "Rating of Top 25" companies Gartner Research, the world's best supply chain in 2014, has identified four key trends: a return to business growth after the economic crisis, a focus on the supply chain flexibility increase, a supply chains simplification via standardization of the manufactured products and provided services and an implementation of “multi-local” operational strategies. Analysis of the «Best Log» project shows that advanced logistics practice focuses on simultaneous representation and integration of social, environmental and economic principles that will positively impact not only on the environment and society, but also on economic performance in the long-run time period.
It is proved that the focus on “best practices” allows companies to develop sustainable supply chains, increase market share, build a trusting relationship of focus company with customers and suppliers in supply chains, differentiate its own brand and optimize logistics solutions.
In the article process maturity model selection as an effective tool for diagnosing vulnerability of logistics processes, the characteristic of the process maturity concept and a typology of maturity models used in logistics and supply chain management. Just describe the main stages of development maturity model of logistic processes, the proposed method is demonstrated by the development of maturity model to assess vulnerability of domestic construction companies regarding logistics risks.
This article discusses perspectives of the use of monitoring systems in the enterprises of the manufacturing sector of logistics. The case for the implementation of such systems on real production facilities was considered. The economic efficiency of using monitoring systems was analyzed. For this, three scenarios were created under which it is possible to make mistakes when performing the business process of determining the need for inventory items. The first of them described a situation in which the time of error detection was 1 day; the second scenario suggested an increase in the time of failure to 2 days; scenario 3 described the use of the real-time monitoring system and described situation in which failure in the supply chain caused by shortage of goods was determined instantly. After that, these scenarios were analyzed on the basis of existing contract for production of certain number of finished products. It is shown that the monitoring system can significantly reduce batch production time due to a significant reduction in the probability of making mistakes. Finally, it was shown how the implementation of monitoring and automation system for a number of tasks affects the efficiency of business processes.
The article reveals the problems of implementing in Russia the technological platform “Digital SCM/logistics” which is an indispensable part of digital economy model being currently created in Russia. The article looks at the main problems, prospects and obstacles preventing the formation of Digital SCM/logistics. Overwhelming analysis of functionality of digital SCM/logistics is provided with such parts of the latter as Big Data, IoT, Blockchain technology, Cloud service, e-SCM, 3D Printing and others. Functional organization model of competence Centre of competence in the field of Digital SCM/logistics as a basis for technological platform construction in Russia is given. The role of HSE School of Logistics and International Centre of Logistics in creating and development of digital logistics/SCM is shown. The academic staff’s best practices of scientific project capacities concerning Digital SCM/logistics issues of academic staff are introduced.
The paper analyses the demand planning process from supply chain management perspective. The place of the analyzed process in SCOR and GSCF models is investigated. Main steps of the process are clarified: analysis and preparation of historical data; statistical forecasting; manual expert correction of the forecast; forecast verification and confirmation; quality monitoring of forecast and process. Approaches to process data organization are investigated; terminology in this area is presented. The key forecasting methods are analyzed including: qualitative/subjective, cause and effect, time series. Key forecasting models for demand planning in supply chains are systemized. The importance of the quality monitoring of forecasts is highlighted. Main methods of determination of exceptional situations are presented. Key requirements for informational systems of demand planning are formalized. Overview of popular software tools for demand planning is presented.