The paper analyzes the future occupational structure of labour force in OECD European countries. Occupational structure forecasts allow researchers to evaluate the quality of job openings and, consequently, the overall future labor market performance. Identification of features of demand for certain occupations in Europe can also help to understand whether the processes occurring on the Russian labour market are consistent with the global trends. The paper discusses the methodology of labour force forecasting and basic research approaches to the prediction of occupational structure changes. It emphasizes the issue of the dynamics of demand for representatives of certain occupations in Europe by distinguishing fastest growing occupations and fastest declining occupations together with possible reasons for the changes in demand for them. The paper demonstrates that the main occupational trend over the next decade will consists in the increasing importance of professionals, as well as technicians and associate professionals. The increase in the demand for health professionals and representatives of occupations providing scientific and technological breakthrough, will be most significant. At the same time it is expected that the demand for elementary occupations will also rise. This process will evolve simultaneously with the decrease in the total amount of skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar occupations which happens due to the globalization and the reduction of industrial production in the developed economies. The ongoing "mechanization" of many job functions still can’t eliminate the need for such occupations as cleaners, laborers, domestic servants, personal workers etc. The presence of these jobs allow employees with low levels of education remain in the labor market and thus not to depend on the social benefit system. Another tendency for all countries with developed economies will be connected to the reduction of demand for many white collar occupations. This comes as a result of a further spread of modern computer technologies and automation of many routine functions previously performed by office workers.
The essay focuses in the issue of sustainable healthcare systems development, in the poorest countries particular, and the taken measures to tackle it in three main areas: maternity care, children's mortality reduction and struggle against HIV/AIDS and other dangerous diseases. The author highly estimates the impact of intellectual property rights on the possibilities for providing universal access to medical services in the developing countries.
The paper presents analysis of the G8 Muskoka and G20 Toronto summits. It looks into the main documents agreed and decisions made by the leaders. The authors consider the trend for division of labor on priorities and global governance functions between the two institutions, and the risks it contains. The analysis highlights that the G8 members so far bear the dual responsibility for commitments made in both the G8 and G20 summits. The G8 members have also delegated significant volume of the direction setting and decision making functions to the G20. It can be assumed that the Seoul summit will change the trend. However the paper concludes that if the Muskoka-Toronto summitry distribution of functions is maintained and consolidated, and the G20 compliance record remains low, the G8-G20 partnership for global governance will be neither sustainable nor effective.
The presented publication includes recommendations on measures to tackle inequality developed by Civil20.
As inequality is increasing and negatively affect economic and social development, countries need to take integrated actions to tackle it. To ensure sustainable, balanced, and inclusive growth the G20 should: (1) encourage inclusive economic growth through reducing primary inequality; (2) create opportunities for all through fair and effective redistribution measures; (3) ensure government transparency and accountability; (4) address horizontal inequality through providing equal access to social opportunities.
Civil20 is ready to contribute to completion of the G20 commitments in ensuring equal opportunities both at national and international levels.