This contribution offers to the readers a publication and translation (with linguistic and philological commentaries) of a recently discovered piece of Old Amharic poetry, possibly dating to the first half/middle of the 17th century. The published text bears the title Märgämä kəbr (“Condemnation of glory”), but its content differs from that of several other Old Amharic poems (not entirely independent from each other) known under the same title. It is only the general idea and the main topics that are shared by all Märgämä kəbr poems: transience of the earthly world, the inevitability of death and of God’s judgement, and the necessity of leading virtuous life.
One can thus speak of Märgämä kəbr as a special genre of early Amharic literature, probably originally belonging to the domain of oral literature and used to address the Christian community with the aim of religious education and admonition of the laymen.
Previous research has documented associations of physical strength and facial morphology predominantly in men of Western societies. Faces of strong men tend to be more robust, are rounder and have a prominent jawline compared with faces of weak men. Here, we investigate whether the morphometric patterns of strength-face relationships reported for members of industrialized societies can also be found in members of an African pastoralist society, the Maasai of Northern Tanzania.
Materials and methods
Handgrip strength (HGS) measures and facial photographs were collected from a sample of 185 men and 120 women of the Maasai in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In young-adults (20–29 years; n = 95) and mid-adults (30–50 years; n = 114), we digitized 71 somatometric landmarks and semilandmarks to capture variation in facial morphology and performed shape regressions of landmark coordinates upon HGS. Results were visualized in the form of thin-plate plate spline deformation grids and geometric morphometric morphs.
Individuals with higher HGS tended to have wider faces with a lower and broader forehead, a wider distance between the medial canthi of the eyes, a wider nose, fuller lips, and a larger, squarer lower facial outline compared with weaker individuals of the same age-sex group. In mid-adult men, these associations were weaker than in the other age-sex groups.
We conclude that the patterns of HGS relationships with face shape in the Maasai are similar to those reported from related investigations in samples of industrialized societies. We discuss differences between the present and related studies with regard to knowledge about the causes for age- and sex-related facial shape variation and physical strength associations.
In this paper, I attempt to compare the relative rates of replacement of basic vocabulary items (from the 100-item Swadesh list) over four specific checkpoints in the history of the Chinese language: Early Old Chinese (as represented by documents such as The Book of Songs), Classic Old Chinese, Late Middle Chinese (represented by the language of The Record of Linji), and Modern Chinese. After a concise explication of the applied methodology and a detailed presentation of the data, it is shown that the average rates of replacement between each of these checkpoints do not significantly deviate from each other and are generally compatible with the classic «Swadesh constant» of 0.14 loss per millennium; furthermore, these results correlate with other similar observed situations, e.g. for the Greek language, though not with others (Icelandic). It is hoped that future similar studies on the lexical evolution of languages with attested written histories will allow to place these observations into a more significant context.
People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity.
The essay examines two blocks of poetry published in the pages of a Spanish literary magazine Prisma that came out in Barcelona in the 1920s. Both are literary hoaxes, result of the mysterious China motif and its circulation in Spain.
Given the growing dissatisfaction of international academic communities within the social and humanistic sciences, with their rigid and counter-productive self-referential practices of intra-disciplinary communication, the integrative and cross-disciplinary attempt by Mangone is eminently relevant. For sociologists elaborating on Pitirim Sorokin’s ideas, it may seem questionable that his vast intellectual heritage can serve as a proper foundation for promoting the arguably “new science” of Cultural Psychology. However, instead of using a single disciplinary perspective (sociology or cultural psychology), Mangone succeeds in persuading the reader to look at Sorokin from different angles—that of the dialogue between different disciplines as sociology and cultural psychology.
The present article gives a detailed account of previously unknown documentary sources of Leskov’s short story “Episcopal Justice.” This story bears the subtitle “True story. From recent recollections,” which seems to suggest an autobiographical basis for the narrative. The ultimate aim of the study is to determine whether the story’s central incident—a Christian bishop comes to the rescue of a Jewish boy—may have been based on real events. My analysis of the recently discovered archival materials, as well as of the historical circumstances surrounding the writing of the tale, shows that “Episcopal Justice” may well have been based on real-life events. Moreover, we consider this story in the context of Leskov’s other writings addressing the “Jewish question” and trace the evolution of his position as it shifts, in his later years, toward one of equality of the Christian and Jewish faiths.
Previous studies have demonstrated altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with post-stroke depression (PSD). It remains unclear whether rsFC is changed at the network level as was shown for major depressive disorder (MDD). To address this question, we investigated rsFC of resting sate networks (RSNs) in PSD.
Eleven subjects with PSD underwent fMRI scanning at rest before and after treatment. The severity of depression was assessed using the aphasic depression rating scale (ADRS). We performed functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis for RSNs, region of interest - FC analysis (ROI-FC) and calculation of brain matter volumes in ROIs overlapping with RSNs and in other brain regions associated with mood maintenance.
We found positive correlation of FNC between anterior default mode network (aDMN) and salience network (SAL) with depression severity before treatment, the latter accompanied by the increase of white matter in the middle frontal and left angular gyri. FNC of aDMN and left frontoparietal network (LFP) decreased after treatment. ROI-FC and the brain matter volumes of several regions of DMN, LFP and SAL also showed a correlation with ADRS or significant change after treatment.
Limitations include small sample size and methodological issues concerning altered hemodynamics in stroke. However, we took complex preprocessing steps to overcome these issues.
Present results of altered rsFC in PSD are consistent with previous findings in MDD. The convergence of results obtained in PSD and MDD supports the validity of rsFC approach for investigation of brain network dysfunctions underling these psychiatric symptoms.
The study represents reflection on a recent publication of articles by the renowned Irish historian Brendan Bradshaw “’And so began the Irish nation’: nationality, national consciousness and nationalism in pre-modern Irelandˮ dedicated to the issue of national consciousness and nationalism in early modern Ireland. Bradshaw’s materials are concerned not only with local Irish questions, but also with the debate between ethnosymbolists and modernists about the roots of nation and nationalism. Bradshaw proves, rather convincingly, that the early Modern period was the defining time for the subsequent development of identity processes on the island. He highlights the institutional factor of the formation of the idea of the Irish nation. It was the emergence of the kingdom of Ireland in 1541 within British composite monarchy and the rising level of political consciousness of English elites in Ireland that enabled manifestations of the idea.
However, there are certain imperfections of the methodological nature in the collection, which is hardly surprising, since the materials are republished and do not correspond to the current scholarly experience of humanities. Having formulated a vague definition of nationalism as ‘patriotically inspired commitment to upholding the freedom, identity and unity of one’s nation’, the Irish historian attempts to find it in the examined period, thus endowing personalities of the 16th and 17th centuries with a level of political thinking which is characteristic of the Modern age. Bradshaw’s perception of the texts is quite straightforward since he considers them to be representative of group ideology and ignores their individuality. The fragments of the text provided by him are sometimes interpreted literally on the basis of the context of the period without the recourse to discourse analysis. As the result of such a reading of sources, the identity processes of early Modern time are represented in an overly simplified way. The author of this paper tries to demonstrate which factors impeded formation of nationalism in the examined period.
Since the late 1980s, we witnessed vigorous attempts to bury the Soviet intelligentsia along with Soviet literature. Some efforts along these lines were truly inspired (Anninsky, 1992Anninsky, L. (1992). The suppression of the intelligentsia. Will it persist till 2000? [Vytesnenia intelligentsia. Will it persists till 2000?]. Ogonek, № 29-30, pp. 28–29. [Google Scholar]; Yampolsky, 1991Yampolsky, M. (1991). Rape by confession [Iznasilovanny pokaianiem]. Literaturnoe obozrenie, 8, 89–96. [Google Scholar]). And yet, forecasts about the imminent demise of Russian intelligentsia have proved premature. Plenty of people still identify themselves with this vaunted group. Some go out of their way to sell their services to the official authorities, to Vladimir Putin – the surprising monarch that emerged after breakup of the Soviet Union. Others, still in self-criticism mode, agitate against the reigning powers and official establishment or sport a decidedly apolitical attitude. Then there are those who enjoy a cozy relationship with the establishment and milk it to their advantage.
Structurally, the situation uncannily resembles the one that prevailed in the Soviet era. The notion that the intelligenty will transform themselves into pragmatic intellectuals – a common assumption in the 1990s – didn’t pan out (Kordonsky, 1994Kordonsky, S. (1994). Intelligentsia as a national elite[Intelligentsia v roli nationalnoi elity]. Predely vlasti, 1, 134–152). The intelligentsia is still very much with us, even though it has adapted to the circumstances.
The article focuses on the legacy of Alexandre Kojève's interpretation of the Phenomenology of the Spirit by Hegel in the novel Homeward from Heaven by Boris Poplavskii, Russian émigré poet and writer who attended Kojève's seminar at the École pratique des hautes études in 1934–35 while writing his final narrative. This enables us to reconfigure the well-known notion of the ‘unnoticed generation’, which claims the cultural isolation of young émigrés in interwar Paris.
This article is dedicated to the first Russian film journal, Sine-Fono, which was published from 1907 to 1918. Sine-Fono was a leading periodical for more than ten years and it played a crucial role in the pre-Revolutionary cinematic process. The journal Sine-Fono is interesting not only as a key fact of the history of early Russian cinema, but also as an extremely important source for its study: since the overwhelming majority of pre-Revolutionary Russian films have not been preserved, historians must judge this period in Russian film history primarily by means of the film press. The article also describes the fate, both before and after the Revolution, of the founder and constant editor of the journal, Samuil Lur’e.
The paper focuses on a two aspectual morphemes in Moksha Mordvin (< Mordvin < Finno-Ugric). The first of them, the Frequentative, has four phonologically conditioned allomorphs, -ənd-, -n’ə-, -s’ə-, and -kšn’ə-. These affixes used to be sepa-rate morphemes in Proto-Finno-Ugric, but ended up as having the same meaning and being complementarily distributed. A remnant of a more archaic stage of lan-guage evolution is the Avertive marker, -əkšn’ə-, only different from one of the Fre-quentative allomorphs by one phoneme, which can hardly be a coincidence. A dia-chronic hypothesis about how iterative-avertive polyfunctionality could have arisen is suggested.
Two understandings of "responsibility" that occur in the work of Roland Barth are considered: the relative responsibility, for one or another position held in the world, and the absolute responsibility, for the whole state of the world. These categories can be traced in different intellectual contexts: semiotic, grammatical, literary, literary-critical, sociocultural, phenomenological, and biographical.
Among the Italians who acted in the ranks of the Comintern were such well-known leaders as Antonio Gramsci, Palmiro Togliatti, Luigi Longo. However, these names can not be limited to the study of the political history of the XX century. Of particular interest is the identity of Luigi Polano from Sardinia. He boldly argued with Lenin during one of the congresses of the Comintern. He paid for it with Party career, but it didn't prevent him to show the abilities on other sites entrusted to himt, - in labor unions and in propaganda in Moscow, Berlin, Amsterdam, Tbilisi.
In 1976 Richard Dawkins coined the term meme as a way to metaphorically project bio-evolutionary principles upon the processes of cultural and social development. The works of Dawkins and of some other enthusiasts had contributed to a rise in popularity of the concept of memetics ("study of memes"), but the interest to this new field started to decline quite soon. The conceptual apparatus of memetics was based on a number of quasi-biological terms, but the emerging discipline failed to go beyond those initial metaphors. This article is an attempt to rebuild the toolkit of memetics with the help of the more fundamental concepts taken from semiotics and to propose a synthetic conceptual framework connecting genetics and memetics, in which semiotics is used as the transdisciplinary methodology for both disciplines. The concept of sign is used as the meta-lingual equivalent for both the concepts of gene and meme. In the most general understanding, sign is a thing which stands for another thing. In genetics this translates into gene that is a section of DNA that stands for the algorithm of how a particular biomolecule is built. In memetics, the similar principle works in meme that is a thing that stands for the rules of how a particular cultural practice is performed.
This article examines the widespread practice of writing auto- biographies (forms of extended curricula vitae) by Soviet citizens. Special attention is given to the real social circumstances that fashioned the narrative structure and content of these life stories and the changes prompted by the political and ideological changes in the USSR. The article also examines strategies of composing autobiographies used by individual authors and draws parallels between the practice of writing these autobiographies and the practice of Christian confession. The article’s general conclusion is that these specific personal testimonies were addressed to the Soviet state and that their composition was part of the mechanism of creating “The New Soviet Man.”
During the 14th and 15th October 2017, a conference organized by Ben Eklof (Indiana University), Igor Fedyukin (Higher School of Economics (Moscow), Tatiana Saburova (Higher School of Economics, Indiana University), Elena Vishlenkova (Higher School of Economics, Moscow) has been held at the Indiana University Europe Gateway at CIEE Global Institute (Berlin) with the aim to discuss new narratives about the history of Russian education, aroused by James C. Scott’s books, Seeking like a State. How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (1998), in particular on the basis of the concept of “high modernism” in its effort to redesign society and of the role of knowledge in the context of social and economic changes.