The author's view on the historical significance of two events of 1961 - the flight of Yuri Gagarin and the testing of a hydrogen bomb - is described in the article.
Is in utero exposure to testosterone (approximated by finger 2D:4D ratio) correlated with the perception of wellbeing? The question matters for understanding the role of non-cognitive determinants of economic behavior. We use unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) that contains markers for testosterone exposure and find support for the correlation between female 2D:4D and average measures of subjective well-being which include: satisfaction with life, work, wage and economic conditions, and with opportunity for professional growth. The most conclusive results are obtained for the digit ratios of women's right hands. Both linear negative and inverse U-shaped associations were significant subject to multiple controls. Ushaped relationships are also observed in the limited number of regressions for males. Even though the data sets do not allow us to account for problems of endogeneity, the regression analyses suggest that the net direct effect of 2D:4D is small but statistically significant.
Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T)–which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D)–would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.
The work is related to the detection of key international and Russian economic journals in cross-citation networks. A list of international journals and information on their cross-citations were taken from Web of Science (WoS) database while information on Russian journals was taken from Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI). We calculated classical centrality measures, which are used for key elements detection in networks, and proposed new indices based on short-range and long-range interactions. A distinct feature of the proposed methods is that they consider individual attributes of each journal and take into account only the most significant links between them. An analysis of 100 main international and 29 Russian economic journals was conducted. As a result, we detected journals with large number of citations to important journals and also journals where the observed rate of selfcitation is a dominant in the total level of citation. The obtained results can be used as a guidance for researchers planning to publish a new paper and as a measure of importance of scientific journals.
The last market crash of 2008-2009 showed that the construction sphere is one of the most fragile subject to the crisis effect. The destructive effect of this crash resulted in substantial decrease in mortgage lending, price index, capital investment, and in growth of the cost level. As the construction industry remains strategically important, the eruption of this sphere, which was facilitated by the crisis, might considerably harm Russian economy as a whole. However, lack of relevant studies leaves the main risk factor of Russian construction firms’ failure unexplored. The purpose of this study is to reveal the key determinants, which cause bankruptcy of Russian construction firms during the crisis period. Moreover, the article provides testing of applicability of accounting-based models to prediction of bankruptcy of these firms. The results show the validity of binary-choice logit and probit specifications with the highest classification accuracy of around 85%. In addition, the liquidity and profitability ratios were defined as superior insolvency factors for four years before a company files for bankruptcy
The last market crash of 2008-2009 showed that the construction sphere is one of the most fragile spheres to the crisis effect. The destructive effect of this crash was resulted in substantial decrease in mortgage lending, price index, capital investment, and in growth of the cost level. As the construction industry remains strategically important, the eruption of this sphere, which was facilitated by the crisis, might considerably harm Russian economy as a whole. However, lack of relevant studies leaves the main risk factor of Russian construction firms’ failure unexplored. The purpose of this study is to reveal the key determinants, which cause bankruptcy of Russian construction firms during the crisis period. Moreover, the article provides testing of applicability of accounting-based models to prediction of bankruptcy of these firms. The results show the validity of binary-choice logit and probit specifications with the highest classification accuracy of around 85%. In addition, the liquidity and profitability ratios were defined as superior insolvency factors for four years before a company files for bankruptcy.
Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence of sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. The nature of the effect of external funding is conceptualized taking several perspectives. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.
We provide a bare-bones framework that uncovers the circumstances which lead either to the emergence of equally-spaced and equally-sized central places or to a hierarchy of central places. We show how these patterns reect the preferences of agents and the e¢ ciency of trans- portation and communication technologies. With one population of homogeneous individuals, the economy is characterized by a uniform distribution or by a periodic distribution of central places having the same size. The interaction between two distinct populations may give rise to a hierarchy of central places with one or several primate cities
In this paper, we investigate differences in and determinants of technical efficiency across three groups of OECD, Asian and Latin American countries. As technical efficiency determines the capacity with which countries absorb technology produced abroad, these differences are important to understand differences in growth and productivity across countries, especially for developing countries which depend to a large extend on foreign technology. Using a stochastic frontier framework and data for 22 manufacturing sectors for 1996-2005, we find notable differences in technical efficiency between the three country groups we examine. We then investigate the effect of human capital and domestic R&D, proxied by the stock of patents, on technical efficiency. We find that while human capital has always a strongly positive effect on efficiency, an increase in the stock of patents has positive effects on efficiency in high-tech sectors, but negative effects in low-tech sectors.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.
The Journal of Management Inquiry astutely predicted in 2004 that the Americanization of business education would not just continue but increase. Ten years later, it is arguable that the acceleration of the Americanization of management education has exceeded all expectations. To theoretically build toward understanding how and why the American business education model has been adopted to different extents, this comparative study builds on the institutional logics perspective, arguing that different institutional logics can potentially explain the various forms and patterns of Americanization and how they are manifested in the world’s business schools Accelerating the Americanization of Management Education: Five Responses From Business Schools (PDF Download Available).
The purpose of this research is to identify typical professional and occupational groups in service-intensive projects, and illustrate the inbuilt tensions among them through the lens of institutional theory. The cases used for the study are a wind turbine business and a content management system project business. Our findings suggest that there are two professional groups (problem solvers, technology developers) and two occupational groups (lead generators, relationship developers) involved in these businesses. More importantly, their intergroup tensions are related to different institutional logics toward the conception of time (project temporality) and prioritization of different aspects of business (primarily commercial or technical issues) that become manifested in stereotypes, perceptions of trust, internal politics and lack of cooperation. Together, we call these institutional logics the project ethos of each group. Our findings contribute to the research on project management by illustrating the organizational challenges of service-intensive projects.
This paper considers the consequences of public procurement reform in Russia in 2005-2006. We show that before the reform, manufacturing firms with government stakes, old firms and larger firms had advantages in access to government orders. In 2009 large firms retain their advantages in access to government orders. Estimated scales of ‘kickback’ in 2009 were virtually the same in 2005. Active restructuring of the enterprises had no influence on the enterprises’ access to government orders. We discuss the reason for this failure of the radical reform of public procurement in Russia, and provide some policy implications.
The article explores the role of accounting and reforms of financial management practices in 18th century Russian state administration and finance combining historical and comparative levels of analysis.
This article addresses the issue of unobserved heterogeneity in film characteristics influence on box-office. We argue that the analysis of pooled samples, most common among researchers, does not shed light on underlying segmentations and leads to significantly different estimates obtained by researchers running similar regressions for movie success modeling. For instance, it may be expected that a restrictive MPAA rating is a box office poison for a family comedy, whereas it insignificantly influences an action movie’s revenues. Using a finite mixture model we extract two latent groups, the differences between that can be explained in part by the movie genre, the source, the creative type and the production method. On the basis of this result, the authors recommend developing separate movie success models for different segments, rather than adopting an approach, that was commonly used in previous research, when one explanatory or predictive model is developed for the whole sample of movies.
Gross exports accounting is a novel sub-area of research that seeks to allocate the value added in gross trade flows to its true country and sector of origin and country or sector of destination. Various frameworks have been recently proposed to perform such decompositions. This paper presents another effort to generalise the accounting framework so that it may be easily interpreted, customised and implemented in matrix computation software. The principal contribution is therefore a relatively simple way to derive the formulae for the decomposition of cumulative value added flows embodied in international trade. The underlying accounting approach is found to be largely similar to that of [Koopman et al., 2012; Stehrer, 2013], but the block matrix formulation allows the user to simultaneously decompose all bilateral flows at the country and/or sectoral level. The refined framework is applied to describe Russia’s export performance from the global value chain perspective using the data from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) for 2000 and 2010. According to the findings, the countries that directly receive most of Russia’s exports are not exactly those that use most of Russia’s value added. Russia’s mining sector is found to be an intrinsic part of a complex downstream value chain where it indirectly contributes value to partner exports.
This article is written in English.
This study tests a model of the socio-economic adaptation of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium. It examines the roles of language skills and length of stay in Belgium, and of ethnic and religious identification in their acculturation preferences in their adaptation. The study showed that language skills were positively related to preferences for integration and assimilation, while length of stay was negatively related to separation. In turn, integration and assimilation predicted higher socio-economic adaptation, and separation predicted lower adaptation. Ethnic and religious identification also played a role. In sum, more orientation toward the host society (integration and assimilation) promoted better adaptation.