The activity of supported and in situ synthesized sulfide Ni–W catalysts based on a low-siliconzeolite Y (SiO2/Al2O3 = 5.2) in the hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil is studied. It is shown that the temperature and time of reaction affect the fractional composition and the sulfur content in conversion products. Itis found that the phase of tungsten sulfide as well as the mixed Ni−W−S phase active in hydrogenation areformed on the catalyst surface. It is proposed that an increase in activity for the in situ formed catalyst maybe explained by a high content of sulfide phases on the catalyst surface and accessibility of the zeolite pore system
We developed a ruthenium-catalyzed reductive ester synthesis from aldehydes or ketones and carboxylic acids using carbon monoxide as a deoxygenative agent. Multiple factors influencing the outcome of the reaction were investigated. Best results were obtained for commercially available and inexpensive benzene ruthenium chloride; as low as 0.5 mol % of the catalyst is sufficient for efficient reaction. Competitive studies demonstrated that the presence of even 1000 equiv of alcohol in the reaction mixture does not lead to the corresponding ester, which clearly indicates that the process is not a simple reductive esterification but a novel type of Ru-catalyzed redox process.
Oxidative esterification of biomass-derived 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF) and furfural and their derivatives has been performed using a simple MnO2/NaCN system. The developed method allows the selective one-pot transformation of HMF to dimethyl furan-2,5-dicarboxylate (FDME) in 83% isolated yield without the formation of a free acid. Simplification of FDME production provides the missing link for manufacturing sustainable value-added materials from biomass. Addition of water to the oxidative system allows finetuning of reaction selectivity to obtain the previously difficult-to-access pure methyl 5-(hydroxylmethyl) furan-2-carboxylate in one step directly from the unprotected HMF without chromatographic separation.
Recent advances in the area of biomass-derived C6-furanic platform chemicals for sustainable biomass processing are analyzed focusing on chemical reactions important for development of practical applications and materials science. Among the chemical processes currently being studied, tuning the amount of oxygen-containing functional groups remains the most active research direction. Production of efficient fuels requires the removal of oxygen atoms (reduction reactions), whereas utilization of biomassderived furanic derivatives in material science points out the importance of oxidation in order to form dicarboxylic derivatives. Stimulated by this driving force, oxidation and reduction of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) are nowadays massively studied. Moreover, these fundamental transformations are often used as model reactions to test new catalysts, and HMF transformations guide the development of new catalytic systems. From the viewpoint of organic synthesis, highly diverse chemical reactivity is explored and a number of bioderived synthetic building blocks with different functional groups are now accessible. This Perspective covers the most recent literature (since Jan 2017) to highlight the emerging research trends.
In situ XRD and NMR experiments combined with molecular dynamics simulations using the grand canonical ensemble (GCMD) show that cation size, charge and solvation energy play critical roles in determining the interlayer expansion of smectite clay minerals when exposed to dry supercritical CO2 under conditions relevant to the earthâ€™s upper crust, petroleum reservoirs, and geological CO2 sequestration conditions (323 K and 90 bar). The GCMD results show that the smectite mineral, hectorite, containing interlayer alkali and alkaline earth cations with relatively small ionic radii and high solvation and hydration energies (e.g., Li+, Na+ Mg2+, and Ca2+) does not intercalate dry CO2 and that the fully collapsed interlayer structure is the energetically most stable configuration. With increasing cation size and decreasing cation solvation energy, the energy barrier to CO2 intercalation decreases. With K+, Rb+, Cs+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ the monolayer structure is the stable configuration, and CO2 should spontaneously enter the interlayer. With Cs+ there is not even an energy barrier for CO2 intercalation, in agreement with the experimental XRD and NMR results that show clay layer expansion and CO2 incorporation. The number of intercalated CO2 molecules decreases with increasing size of the alkali cation but does not vary with ion size for the alkaline earth cations. 13C NMR spectroscopy and the GCMD simulations show that the average orientation of the intercalated CO2 molecules is with their O-C-O axes parallel to the basal clay surface and that they undergo a combination of rapid rotation about an axis perpendicular to the main molecular axis and wobbling motion with respect to the basal surface. Incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer decreases the coordination of Cs+ by the oxygen atoms of the basal surfaces, which is compensated by CO2 molecules entering their solvation shell, as predicted based on previously published NMR results. The GCMD simulations show that the strength of the interaction between the exchangeable cation and the clay structure dominates the intercalation energetics in dry scCO2. With relatively small cations, the cation-clay interactions outcompete cation solvation by CO2 molecules. The computed residence times for coordination among of interlayer species are consistent with the computed energetics.
The intercalation of H2O, CO2, and other fluid species in expandable clay minerals (smectites) may play a significant role in controlling the behavior of these species in geological C-sequestration and enhanced petroleum production and has been the subject of intensive study in recent years. This paper reports the results of a computational study of the effects of the properties of the charge balancing, exchangeable cations on H2O and CO2 intercalation in the smectite mineral, hectorite, in equilibrium with an H2O-saturated supercritical CO2 fluid under reservoir conditions using Grand Canonical Molecular Dynamics (GCMD) methods. The results show that the intercalation behavior is greatly different with cations with relatively low hydration energies and high affinities for CO2 (here Cs+) than with cations with higher hydration energies (here Ca2+). With Cs+, CO2 intercalation occurs in a 1-layer structure and does not require H2O intercalation, whereas with Ca2+ the presence of a sub-monolayer of H2O is required for CO2 intercalation. The computational results provide detailed structural, dynamical and energetic insight into the differences in intercalation behavior and are in excellent agreement with in situ experimental XRD, IR, quartz crystal microbalance, and NMR results for smectite materials obtained under reservoir conditions.
A comparison was made between two plant peroxidases, cationic horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anionic tobacco peroxidase (TOP), combined with a highly cationic osmium polymer [Os(4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine)2poly(N-vinylimidazole)10Cl]+ 2/+ ([Os(dmp)PVI]+/2 +) to develop highly sensitive, stable and selective hydrogen peroxide biosensors. The two different plant peroxidases were individually immobilized onto graphite rod (G) electrodes by a three steps drop-casting procedure consisting of the subsequent deposition of an aqueous solution of ([Os(dmp)PVI]+/2 +), followed by a solution of poly(ethyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE), used as a cross linking agent and finally an aliquot of a solution of cationic HRP or anionic TOP to make HRP/PEGDGE/[Os(dmp)PVI]+/2 +/G and TOP/PEGDGE/[Os(dmp)PVI]+/2 +/G based electrodes, respectively. Electrochemical experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of the surface charge of the enzyme and the charge of the polymer on the efficiency of the electron transfer (ET) between the enzyme and the wiring redox polymer and the efficiency for electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2. In the case of HRP a decrease in the ET rate was observed due to the repulsion between this enzyme and the polymer, both positively charged, whereas with TOP there was an enhanced ET rate due to the attraction between the anionic enzyme and the cationic polymer. The effects of enzyme loading and pH were investigated. Both peroxidase modified electrodes exhibited a wide dynamic response range (1–500 μM H2O2) and a low detection limit (0.3 μM H2O2). The TOP based electrode showed a higher sensitivity (470 nA μM− 1 cm− 2) compared to that of the HRP based electrode (300 nA μM− 1 cm− 2) and an improved long-term stability (decrease in 17.3% upon 30 days compared with 50% for HRP). Both enzyme electrodes showed a response time of 3 s. The HRP based sensor was more sensitive to the presence of phenolic compounds acting as alternative electron donors, whereas the TOP based sensor was virtually interference free. Both HRP and TOP based electrodes were successfully tested in contact lens cleaning samples and real “spiked” samples from different sources such as tap water, milk and dairy products.
Syntheses are reported for catalysts derived from platinum and palladium nanoparticles supported on a mesoporous phenol formaldehyde polymer modified by an ionic liquid. These catalysts are used for the hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds, specifically, acyclic and cyclic isoprenoids: isoprene, 2,5 – dimethyl–2,4–hexadiene, limonene, α –terpinene, γ –terpinene, as well as phenylacetylene, transstilbene, and 1,4–diphenyl–1,3–butadiene. High activity was found for these catalysts in hydrogenation reactions. The palladium catalysts were more active than their platinum analogs. The products of complete hydrogenation predominate in the hydrogenation of isoprenoids on the palladium catalysts, while monoene products predominate in the reactions on platinum catalysts.
Statistical information on the edge surface area and edge crystallographic orientation of clay nanoparticle surfaces is essential for proper accounting of the protonation-deprotonation reactions as a part of mechanistic surface complexation models. A combination of atomic-force microscopy (AFM) measurements and molecular dynamics computer simulations made it possible to quantify the relative contributions of the most frequently occurring montmorillonite edge surfaces to the total edge surface area. Edge surfaces normal to the  and  crystallographic directions are found to be the most abundant (~60% and ~20%, respectively), in agreement with previous estimations.
Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study impregnation of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix with carbamazepine (CBZ) in supercritical carbon dioxide. The simulation box consists of 108 macromolecules of the polymer sample with the polymerization degree of 100, 57 molecules of CBZ, and 242,522 CO2 molecules. The simulation is performed at 333 K and 20 MPa. It is found that by the end of the simulation, the CBZ uptake reaches 1.09 wt % and 50 molecules are sorbed by PMMA. The main type of interaction between PMMA and CBZ is hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl oxygen of PMMA and the hydrogen atoms of the CBZ NH2-group. At the polymer surface, CBZ exists not only in the molecular form, as inside the polymer and in the bulk solution, but also in the form of dimers and trimers. The energy of formation of the hydrogen-bonded complexes is estimated within ab initio calculations.
Due to their high durability and immobilization properties, cementitious materials have found a considerable application in the design and construction of radioactive waste repositories in the last decades. During cement paste production, organic additives are introduced to modify various properties of cement. The presence of such organic complexants may negatively affect the immobilizing properties of cement with respect to radionuclides. For better understanding and prediction of the effects of interactions between organic molecules and cementitious materials with radionuclides, we have developed several representative models consisting of three principal components: (i) calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phase - the main binding phase of cement; (ii) gluconate, a simple well-described molecule, as a representative of organic additives; (iii) U(VI), as one of the most studied radionuclides of the actinide series. The C-S-H phase with low Ca/Si ratio (~0.83) typical for â€œlow-pHâ€ and degraded cement pastes has been selected for this modelling study. Structural, and energetic aspects of the sorption processes of uranyl, gluconate, and their mutual correlations on the surface of cement were quantitatively modeled by classical molecular dynamics (MD) and potential of mean force (PMF) calculations. The ternary surface complex formation between uranyl hydroxides and Ca2+ cations at the C-S-H aqueous interfaces is shown to have an important role in the overall sorption process. In the presence of gluconate, U(VI) sorption on C-S-H is facilitated by weakening the Ca2+ binding with the surface. Additionally, Na+ is proven to be an important competitor for certain surface sorption sites and can potentially affect the equilibrium properties of the interface.
We present a nonlocal statistical field theory of a dilute electrolyte solution with a small additive of dipolar particles. We postulate that every dipolar particle is associated with an arbitrary probability distribution function (PDF) of distance between its charge centers. Using the standard Hubbard–Stratonovich transformation, we represent the configuration integral of the system in the functional integral form. We show that in the limit of a small permanent dipole moment, the functional in integrand exponent takes the well known form of the Poisson–Boltzmann–Langevin (PBL) functional. In the mean-field approximation we obtain a non-linear integro-differential equation with respect to the mean-field electrostatic potential, generalizing the PBL equation for the point-like dipoles obtained first by Abrashkin et al. We apply the obtained equation in its linearized form to derivation of the expressions for the mean-field electrostatic potential of the point-like test ion and its solvation free energy in salt-free solution, as well as in solution with salt ions. For the ‘Yukawa’-type PDF we obtain analytic relations for both the electrostatic potential and the solvation free energy of the point-like test ion. We obtain a general expression for the bulk electrostatic free energy of the solution within the Random phase approximation (RPA). For the salt-free solution of the dipolar particles for the Yukawa-type PDF we obtain an analytic relation for the electrostatic free energy, resulting in two limiting regimes. Finally, we analyze the limiting laws, following from the general relation for the electrostatic free energy of solution in presence of both the ions and the dipolar particles for the case of Yukawa-type PDF.
The effect of mild pyrolysis methods (hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction) on the physi-cochemical properties of biocoal was studied. It was established that biocoal obtained by hydrothermal car-bonization has a large specific surface area and exerts an exothermic effect upon decomposition; as comparedwith the samples obtained by torrefaction, it has a more dispersed structure and lower ash content.
Reductive amination plays a paramount role in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry owing to its synthetic merits and the ubiquitous presence of amines among biologically active compounds. It is one of the key approaches to C–N bond construction due to its operational easiness and a wide toolbox of protocols. Recent studies show that at least a quarter of C–N bond-forming reactions in the pharmaceutical industry are performed via reductive amination. This Review concisely compiles information on 71 medical substances that are synthesized by reductive amination. Compounds are grouped according to the principle of action, which includes drugs affecting the central nervous system, drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, anticancer drugs, antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal medicines, drugs affecting the urinary system, drugs affecting the respiratory system, antidiabetic medications, drugs affecting the gastrointestinal tract, and drugs regulating metabolic processes. A general synthetic scheme is provided for each compound, and the description is focused on reductive amination steps. The green chemistry metric of reaction mass efficiency was calculated for all reactions.
We performed constant reservoir composition molecular dynamics (CRC-MD) simulations at 323 K and 124 bar to quantitatively study the partitioning of fluid species between the nano- and mesopores of clay and a bulk reservoir containing an equimolar mixture of CO2 and CH4. The results show that the basal (001) and protonated edge (010) surfaces of illite both demonstrate a strong preference for CO2 over CH4 adsorption; that the (001) surfaces show a stronger preference for CO2 than the (010) surfaces, especially with K+ as the exchangeable cation; and that the structuring of the near-surface CO2 by K+ is stronger than that by Na+. The protonated (010) surfaces have a somewhat greater preference for CH4, with the concentration near them close to that in the bulk fluid. The effects of the surfaces on the fluid composition extend to approximately 2.0 nm from them, with the fluid composition at the center of the pore becoming essentially the same as the bulk composition at a pore thickness of ~5.7 nm. The preference of nano- and mesopores bounded by clay minerals for CO2 over CH4 suggests that injection of CO2 into tight reservoirs is likely to displace CH4 into larger pores, thus enhancing its production.
Toward the development of classical force fields for the accurate modeling of clay mineral-water systems, we have extended the use of metalâ€“Oâ€“H (Mâ€“Oâ€“H) angle bending terms to describe surface Siâ€“Oâ€“H bending for hydrated kaolinite edge structures. Kaolinite, comprising linked octahedral Al and tetrahedral Si sheets, provides a rigorous test by combining aluminol and silanol groups with water molecules in hydrated edge structures. Periodic density functional theory and classical force fields were used with molecular dynamics to evaluate the structure, dynamics, hydrogen bonding, and power spectra for deriving optimum bending force constants and optimal equilibrium angles. Cleavage energies derived from density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations indicate the relative stabilities of both AC1 and AC2 edge terminations of kaolinite where Siâ€“OH and Alâ€“(OH2) or Siâ€“OH, Alâ€“OH, and Alâ€“(OH2) groups exist, respectively. Although not examined in this study, the new Siâ€“Oâ€“H angle bending parameter should allow for improved modeling of hydroxylated surfaces of silica minerals such as quartz and cristobalite, as well as amorphous silica-based surfaces and potentially those of other silicate and aluminosilicate phases.
Professor Yuri E. Gorbatywas born 30 July 1932 in the city Grozny, in the Soviet Union. He has graduated from the Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology,Moscow, in 1955. He has got his Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) degree in 1963 for his work on “Non-equilibrium crystallization of the three-componentmelts”, and later in 1988 he was awarded a Doctor of Sciences degree for the work “The effect of temperature and pressure on the nearest ordering in liquid and supercritical water”. Between these two dates and then later in his scientific career Yuri E. Gorbaty has become one of the leading experts in the field of experimental studies of the structure and properties of fluids, especially aqueous fluids at high temperatures and pressures, by methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and by X-ray diffraction.
2-Azidomethyl-5-ethynylfuran, a new ambivalent compound with both azide and alkyne moieties that can be used as a self-clickable monomer, is synthesized starting directly from renewable biomass. The reactivity of the azide group linked to furfural is tested via the efficient preparation of a broad range of furfural-containing triazoles in good to excellent yields using a ‘green’ copper(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition procedure. Access to new bio-based chemicals and oligomeric materials via a click-chemistry approach is also demonstrated using this bio-derived building block.
Non-turnover voltammetry is a sensitive tool to characterize the electrochemical properties of redox proteins. However, the catalytically competent oxidation states of most peroxidases do not display the required electrochemical reversibility. In this report, we circumvent this limitation and exploit the voltammetric response associated with the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple of tobacco peroxidase to probe the energetics and electronic connectivity of the heme pocket. We have applied this approach to rationalize the previously reported influence of the immobilization protocol on the electrocatalytic activity of tobacco peroxidase. To decouple proton and electron transfer steps, measurements have been carried out over the 3 ≤ pH ≤ 9 range and a 1e − /2H + ladder scheme has been adopted for their analysis. At each pH, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters associated with the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox conversion were determined as a function of temperature in the 0-30 °C range. Reduction entropies and reorganization energies displayed different values for covalently immobilized and physisorbed enzymes, pointing to a larger involvement of the solvent in the last case. These findings, together with a larger electronic coupling between the prosthetic group and the electrode, are indicative of a partial denaturation of the physisorbed enzymes as the origin of their lower electrocatalytic activity.
The carboxypeptidase T (CPT) from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris has an active site structure and 3D organization similar to pancreatic carboxypeptidases A and B (CPA and CPB), but differs in broader substrate specificity. The crystal structures of CPT complexes with the transition state analogs N-sulfamoyl-L-leucine and N-sulfamoyl-L-glutamate (SLeu and SGlu) were determined and compared with previously determined structures of CPT complexes with N-sulfamoyl-L-arginine and N-sulfamoyl-L-phenylalanine (SArg and SPhe). The conformations of residues Tyr255 and Glu270, the distances between these residues and the corresponding ligand groups, and the Zn-S gap between the zinc ion and the sulfur atom in the ligand's sulfamoyl group that simulates a distance between the zinc ion and the tetrahedral sp3-hybridized carbon atom of the converted peptide bond, vary depending on the nature of the side chain in the substrate's C-terminus. The increasing affinity of CPT with the transition state analogs in the order SGlu, SArg, SPhe, SLeu correlates well with a decreasing Zn-S gap in these complexes and the increasing efficiency of CPT-catalyzed hydrolysis of the corresponding tripeptide substrates (ZAAL > ZAAF > ZAAR > ZAAE). Thus, the side chain of the ligand that interacts with the primary specificity pocket of CPT, determines the geometry of the transition complex, the relative orientation of the bond to be cleaved by the catalytic groups of the active site and the catalytic properties of the enzyme. In the case of CPB, the relative orientation of the catalytic amino acid residues, as well as the distance between Glu270 and SArg/SPhe, is much less dependent on the nature of the corresponding side chain of the substrate. The influence of the nature of the substrate side chain on the structural organization of the transition state determines catalytic activity and broad substrate specificity of the carboxypeptidase T.
The development of advanced electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage requires fine tuning of electrode reactions, which can be accomplished by altering the electrode/solution interface structure. Particularly, in case of an alkali-salt electrolyte the electric double layer (EDL) composition can be managed by introducing organic cations (e.g. room temperature ionic liquid cations) that may possess polar fragments. To explore this approach, we develop a theoretical model predicting the efficient replacement of simple (alkali) cations with dipolar (organic) ones within the EDL. For the typical values of the molecular dipole moment ($2-4~D$) the effect manifests itself at the surface charge densities higher than 30 $\mu C/cm^2$. We show that the predicted behavior of the system is in qualitative agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results.