The paper offers portaits of three intellectuals and writers who's names are related to the Spanish Civil War: Soviet journalists and writers Koltsov and Ehrenburg, and Spanish poet Alberti. There were a connection between civil war and Spain and the Great Terror in the USSR. All of them three suffered consequences of politics and violence in their countries. It is also a reflextion on the rol of the writer in the 20th century.
The 8th Russian Summer School in Information Retrieval (RuSSIR 2014) was held on August 18-22, 2014 in Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia.1 The school was co-organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics2 and the Russian Information Retrieval Evaluation Seminar (ROMIP)
This paper provides the reader with a report on 9th Russian Summer School in Information Retrieval (RuSSIR 2015).
Poetry has always been under the focus of scholars’ attention, though the problem of performing comparative analysis of children’s and adults’ poetry has not deserved enough attention yet. Our study is aimed to fill in the gap and provide the analysis of English poetry for adults and children with the attempt to identify some grammatical peculiarities of the corresponding poetic texts. The scope of the texts for examination is limited to English poetry of the nineteenth – twentieth centuries focused on the animal theme. Our analysis of the temporal structure of the texts selected was based on the method elaborated by Ludmila Nozdrina in her work “Poetics of grammar categories” (2004). The results of our study have proved the hypothesis we stated: there exist some differences in temporal structuring of the nineteenth–twentieth century poetic English texts focused on the animal theme. The main difference lies in targeting the poem: whether it appeals to adults or children.
The article describes the use of a number of alternative blended learning models based on a mixture of traditional face-to-face classes with some elements of e-learning in the course of “English for Academic Purposes” (EAP) and “English for Specific Academic Purposes” (ESAP) taught to junior and senior undergraduate students of computer sciences in the undergraduate program of Business Informatics and Software Engineering over a period of time from 2009 to 2012 at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia
Background: Overall, there is growing consensus that working memory (WM) should be routinely assessed in individuals with aphasia as it can contribute significantly to their level of language impairment and be an important factor in treatment planning. However, there is still no consensus in the field as to which tasks should be used to assess WM in aphasia. The two main alternatives are adapted complex span tasks and N-back tasks. Both have been used interchangeably in previous studies of WM in aphasia, even though the correspondence between the two tasks has not been properly established.
Aims: The current study investigates the relationship between two WM tasks – complex span and N-back tasks – in a large sample of individuals with aphasia. The relationship of these tasks to measures of language comprehension are also explored, as well as differences in performance patterns between individuals with non-fluent and fluent aphasia.
Methods & Resources: Forty-four participants with aphasia (non-fluent: n=27; fluent: n = 13; mixed: n = 4) were examined with a modified listening span task (Ivanova & Hallowell, 2014), an auditory verbal 2-back task, and a standardized Russian language comprehension test.
Outcomes & Results: Results revealed a moderate relationship between the two WM measures, but demonstrated a divergence in terms of their relationship to language comprehension. Performance on the modified listening span task was related to language comprehension abilities, but performance on the 2-back task was not, suggesting that the two tasks primarily index different underlying cognitive mechanisms. Furthermore, the relationship between the modified listening span task and language comprehension was significant for individuals with non-fluent aphasia, but not for those with fluent aphasia.
Conclusions: Overall, the data demonstrate that while performance of individuals with aphasia was related on the two tasks, the two tasks cannot be substituted for one another without further inquiries into their underlying differences.
Purpose: This study investigated how listeners’ native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification task on nonce disyllabic words with fully crossed combinations of each of the 4 cues in both syllables. Results: The results revealed that although the vowel quality cue was the strongest cue for all groups of listeners, pitch was the second strongest cue for the English and the Mandarin listeners but was virtually disregarded by the Russian listeners. Duration and intensity cues were used by the Russian listeners to a significantly greater extent compared with the English and Mandarin participants. Compared with when cues were noncontrastive across syllables, cues were stronger when they were in the iambic contour than when they were in the trochaic contour. Conclusions: Although both English and Russian are stress languages and Mandarin is a tonal language, stress perception performance of the Mandarin listeners but not of the Russian listeners is more similar to that of the native English listeners, both in terms of weighting of the acoustic cues and the cues’ relative strength in different word positions. The findings suggest that tuning of second-language prosodic perceptions is not entirely predictable by prosodic similarities across languages.
Morphophonological alternations can make target-like production of grammatical morphemes challenging due to changes in form depending on the phonological environment. This article explores the acquisition of morphophonological alternations involving the interacting patterns of vowel deletion and stress shift in Russian-speaking children (aged 4;0–7;11) using a ‘wug’ test with real and nonce words. Depending on the phonological context, participants were expected to either delete vowels (e.g. ko'mokNom,sg – kom'kaGen,sg) or preserve them (e.g. pji´lotNom,sg – pji´lotaGen,sg). The results showed that children’s sensitivity to morphophonological patterns increases with age: 4-year-olds tended to preserve underlying vowels and stress across conditions, whereas older children demonstrated growing accuracy, at least with real words. Stressed vowels were more appropriately alternated and preserved across conditions, suggesting suprasegmental effects on the acquisition of segmental alternation patterns in Russian.
Acting rationally and consistently with the demands of biological instincts seems to be the overall norm for humans. Still, there are thinkers who have shown that in a deeper sense, this is not an absolute norm at all and there are exclusions that should be taken into account if we wish to understand the true nature of a human. These thinkers, in particular, are Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) and Max Scheler (1874 - 1928). In this article, I depict the peculiarities of each of the authors’ views on freedom of will and action, and, at the same time, I will show that their ideas are implicitly similar. Dostoevsky did not know Scheler, of course; it is likely that Scheler read some of Dostoevsky’s work, although Scheler does not cite him.
Paromita Chakrabarti and Yulia Gradskova discuss the Bakhtin Circle with five experts in the field: Caryl Emerson, university professor emeritus of Slavic languages and literatures, Princeton University; Lakshmi Bandlamudi, professor of psychology at LaGuardia Community College, City University of New York; Ken Hirschkop, professor of English at the University of Waterloo, Ontario; Craig Brandist, professor of cultural theory and intellectual history and director of the Bakhtin Centre, at the University of Sheffield; and Galin Tihanov, the George Steiner professor of comparative literature at Queen Mary University of London.
The inflected possessive form of the type of Russian ixnij, its rise and variation across the East Slavic dialects and languages are analyzed. Whereas this form has been long fluctuated on the verge of Standard Russian and nevertheless has not been accepted as normative, it has been successfully adopted into Standard Ukrainian (superseding the older jix form) and widely used in Belarusian, although reluctantly accepted in grammars and dictionaries.
The article is devoted to the study of neologisms in advertising English and German discourse. The primary aim of the research was to single out the main tendencies of the use of neologisms in modern authentic English and German advertisements; to find out common features and distinctions between them. The typical features of the advertising discourse on different levels were studied using the examples taken from English and German advertising. With the help of the classification suggested by John Algeo the most productive patterns of coining new words were singled out. In advertising English those are compounding, affixation, abbreviations and clippings; while German copywriters rely on affixation and borrowings. For that purpose more than twenty English and ten German printed magazines of different types were analyzed, including women-oriented magazines. It goes without saying that the results of the research contribute to the formation of cultural awareness of not only students but also linguists and may be used in teaching English and German in the classroom of intermediate and advanced learners of the language.
Standard Modern Russian has phonological contrast between palatal- ized and velarized consonants. One of the most prominent changes attributed recently to this part of its phonetic system is the dramatic aƵrication of pala- talized dental stops which are now pronounced in most phonetic contexts as aƵricates [tsj], [dzj]. The paper proposes the hypothesis that a fast spread of palatalized dental stops’ aƵrication in Standard Modern Russian is triggered by the need to more eƵectively distinguish palatalized plosives in situations that do not provide the primary acoustic cue (formant transition of adjacent vowel) for their diƵerentiation to the listener. Palatalized dental plosives still should be treated phonologically as stops since in the context of homorganic nasal or stop they are not aƵricated (and often unreleased), while the fricative part of dental aƵricates in the same position still preserved in pronunciation of all the subjects studied.
This paper investigates the asymmetrical behavior of Sources and Goals of motion in Homeric and Classical Greek within the frame semantics paradigm. In particular, based on a corpus of 26 works covering four text types, it is shown that (a) regardless of their semantic class, motion verbs display preference for Goal paths compared to Source ones; (b) the frame that a verb belongs to affects the type of path chosen only to a certain degree that does not change the Source-Goal imbalance; (c) semantically incongruent motion verb – path combinations are naturally less frequent than congruent combinations, but within the category of incongruent combinations the tokens are distributed in a way that reflects the prevalence of Goals; (d) the number of markers for the encoding of Goal is higher than that of Source; and (e) Source and Goal markers interact with Place ones in an asymmetrical way: Goal markers come to encode Place and, similarly, Place markers come to express Goal. Conversely, the interaction of markers exhibiting Source-Place polysemy is unidirectional, in the sense that none of these markers was originally used to encode Place alone. Theoretical implications of the study are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
This paper argues for a general DP-shell analysis of clausal complements in Russian. It is proposed that clausal complements are licensed by a null P in Caseless positions. The argument is based on an agentivity restriction on čto- and čtoby-clauses. Experimental evidence is presented that makes use of the factorial definition of the agentivity restriction. Two alternative accounts – in terms of a partial DP-shell and semantic coercion – are discussed. It is shown that the experimental results favor the null P account over the alternatives.
This paper discusses novel facts regarding adpositional agreement in Avar in light of recent theories of feature valuation. I show that the traditional notion of downward Agree/upward valuation is sufficient to account for the observed facts, rendering the competing mechanism of upward Agree/downward valuation superfluous.