The author's view on the historical significance of two events of 1961 - the flight of Yuri Gagarin and the testing of a hydrogen bomb - is described in the article.
Highlights • Social network methods allow for the studies of actual behavior in academic help. • No barriers exist in social capital exchange between ethnic groups. • Minority and majority students do not differ in academic help behavior. • Academic self-esteem is positively related to help-providing behavior. • Students with lower academic self-esteem seek help more extensively.
Abstract Academic help-seeking and help-providing in school setting streamlines learning process and advances social competencies among students. Little research has examined differential patterns of help-seeking among students of ethnic minority and non-minority status. The present study conceptualizes school help-providing as remedial exchange of social capital among students. To explore possible barriers to such exchange, we compare help-seeking networks among mid-adolescents (15–16 y.o.) of migrant ethnic minority opposite those of non-minority origins, in Russian high schools (N = 3496). The data were collected in 183 classrooms from 49 schools of Greater Moscow area; network information was elicited from students' nominations of their classmates whom they ask for help in Math. Statistical analysis relied on multilevel dyadic p2 model. The data strongly suggest that school performance, academic self-evaluation, and gender are factors affecting help-seeking and help-providing behavior in classroom. By contrast, socio-economic status and, importantly, ethnic minority status had no influence on peer help relations in Moscow schools, suggesting that (1) minority status does not universally introduce stigmatizing barriers in youth social capital exchanges; and (2) majority-minority dynamics may vary as a function of the macro-context in which adolescents are embedded. Implications for further research and policy are discussed in turn.
The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within countries. This variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under-explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty. The research was conducted using data from the ‘Monitoring of Educational Markets and Organizations’ survey. The results show that there is no significant effect of academic inbreeding on publication productivity: no substantial and robust differences in publication activity between inbreds and non-inbreds have been found. The paper finishes with a discussion of possible explanations inherent in the Russian academic system.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.
Student attrition in postsecondary education is a significant public policy problem. Nations invest substantial resources in college systems, and when students leave, this investment is lost. To understand the factors that influence student attrition in US and Russian public universities, we use the perspective of academic momentum, defined empirically as measures representing student enrollment and study progress. Using a discrete-time event history analysis of samples of eight US and two Russian universities, we provide support for the central claims of the academic momentum theory that undergraduate students who progress through college more rapidly have a lower likelihood of attrition. However, a more detailed analysis reveals variability in the relationship between several academic momentum measures and student attrition, depending on a university’s selectivity and the student’s chosen academic field and gender.
This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on budgeting work time. The authors single out and describe eight groups of teachers using various structures for budgeting their working time: (1) teachers; (2) teachers engaged in research; (3) teachers engaged in administrative work; (4) researchers; (5) administrators; (6) teachers/researchers/administrators; (7) teachers/researchers; and (8) teachers/administrators. These groups were classified by comparing professional goals, evaluations of working conditions, the university's strategic goals, and attitudes toward publication policy.
Modernizing reforms in Russia carried out under the banner of “Westernization” and “Europeanization”—and this has been their character throughout history—tend to treat modernization as a technical process, ignoring institutional transformations, not to mention the democratic values embedded in the modernization project. The implementation of educational reform in Russia thus raises a question: How does the incorporation of Russia into the system of international higher education affect academic rights and academic freedom? Can integration into that system by itself guarantee academic freedom within the Russian academy? To answer this question, one must first understand the role academic freedom played in Soviet scholarship and education.
The emergence of many new types of school in post-Soviet Russia raises issues of inequalities in access to quality education. The performance of schools is very uneven, many are failing to provide adequate education, and those that admit their students from the poorer parts of the population need special help and extra resources if they are to improve.
The article describes the use of a number of alternative blended learning models based on a mixture of traditional face-to-face classes with some elements of e-learning in the course of “English for Academic Purposes” (EAP) and “English for Specific Academic Purposes” (ESAP) taught to junior and senior undergraduate students of computer sciences in the undergraduate program of Business Informatics and Software Engineering over a period of time from 2009 to 2012 at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia
The problem of students’ motivation to learn an ever-increasing amount of knowledge (especially in the field of information and communication technologies) is more relevant than ever. This problem can be solved on the basis of students’ active involvement in the educational process. This paper surveys modern approaches to motivate students to participate actively in the educational process. A method of involving students in the process of developing a scenario for taking blended learning courses in the university digital educational environment is proposed. The paper provides a detailed description of the method used to design the most preferred educational trajectory with the participation of students, teachers and the university administration. This method was tested by students in the Computer Systems and Networks master’s program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russia). The paper provides the methodology and the results of a student survey to assess the preference for various educational trajectory components (educational elements). These elements are ranked according to the criteria set by three sides of the educational process (students, teachers and the university experts). Thus, three possible educational trajectories are constructed according to each group’s preferences. The final educational trajectory is formed according to the ranking method and the Kemeny-Snell median method. A comparison of learning outcomes before and after introducing the design method of an educational trajectory confirms the effectiveness of the proposed method. The diagram of changes in the average grade in the discipline illustrates the positive results of the method’s usage.
The paper grounds the necessity of much earlier socialization of children in the Internet age. The main goal is to make children (including teenagers) be aware of possible social consequences of their misuse of information and communication technologies, in particular, of the cell telephones and the Internet. An original method of early forming the cognitive subspace of moral values and social responsibility is stated. It is a part of the System of Emotional-Imaginative Teaching (the EIT-system) developed and successfully tested by the authors during 1990s – 2000s. For describing this method, a new formal notation for representing transformations of the learners’ cognitive-emotional sphere and the spectrum of information processing skills is proposed, it is called the notation of the maps of cognitive transformations. The described method of early socialization and the EIT-system as a whole are interpreted as an important component of cognitonics - a new scientific discipline. The paper also represents a new way of considering impressionism under the frame of cognitonics. An original algorithm of transforming the negative emotions (caused by the messages received from social networks) into the positive ones is proposed. This algorithm considers the possible reactions of a human (including the recommended reactions) to the emotional attacks via social networks. It is proposed to include an analysis of the kind into the program of the interdisciplinary course “Foundations of secure living in information society”.
In this paper we discuss the process of adapting a tool for measuring statistics anxiety (Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS 36)) in Russia. Our sample consists of 253 political science, sociology, and psychology students in statistics courses. The internal consistency of the Russian SATS is 0.94, however there are some differences in factor structure between the original and the adapted scale.
Currently one of the main tools for the large scale studies of schools is statistical analysis. Although it is the most common method and it offers greatest opportunities for analysis, there are other quantitative methods for studying schools, such as network analysis. We discuss the potential advantages that network analysis has for educational research.
This article presents results of a survey of after-school centre directors concerning the extracurricular activities of children. It was conducted within the framework of the Monitoring of the Economics of Education at the National Research University—Higher School of Economics (HSE). The demographics of students at children's after-school centres, the focus of their programs, and the way these educational institutions are supplied with staff and financing were all analyzed on the basis of the obtained data.
One of the most important tasks of higher educational institutions is the training of specialists to be able to adapt to changes in their professional life. At the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the 21st centuries, some methods for developing foreign language competence, needed for their future professional activity, were created by teachers. However, the effectiveness of these methods has not been studied. This fact has aroused the authors’ interest and generated the idea about the necessity to conduct scientific research in order to identify the most effective methods of teaching foreign languages for special purposes. Methods: The given research paper is based on the analysis of Russian and foreign scholars’ scientific works covering the problem of teaching foreign languages for special purposes to the students of humanitarian professions, as well as on the basis of the results from questioning students of bachelor degree programs who study foreign languages for special purposes in the field of humanitarian professions, and also of the results from questioning teachers specializing in teaching foreign languages for special purposes. Results: In the students’ opinion, the most effective methods of teaching foreign languages for special purposes in the field of humanitarian professions are the following: discussion, ICT (information and communication technologies), and SCRUM (framework that helps teams work together, encourages team to learn through on a problem). According to the interviewed teachers’ opinion, the most effective methods are discussion, ICT, and round table. The “dilemma” method is the least effective according to the students. As for the teachers, the less effective method is CLIL (content and language integrated learning). Conclusions: The study showed some common views among teachers and students concerning the effectiveness of methods of teaching foreign languages for professional purposes, such as discussion and ICT. The effectiveness of the discussion method is explained by the fact that it allows the integration of students’ knowledge from different areas when solving a problem and provides an opportunity to apply language knowledge and skills into practice. This contributes to forming students’ ability to think clearly, to perceive information critically, to highlight the main idea and find the means and arguments to confirm and substantiate it, and, consequently, to improve the understanding of any theoretical material. The use of ICT in the educational process allows the efficiency of the educational process itself to be improved significantly and leads to new approaches and organizational forms of educational work. In fact, while preparing educational programs and creating didactic materials, special attention should be given to the implementation of ICT methods and discussions in educational activities. Nevertheless, the respondents’ subjective opinion should not reduce the scientific value and effectiveness of other methods of teaching a foreign language for professional purposes. The authors of the paper believe that methods that have not found much support from students and teachers should be studied more thoroughly and carefully. To this end, it could be recommended to organize special training seminars that would allow teachers to be informed of new methods of teaching foreign languages for professional purposes, of their particularities, and to help their active implementation in the learning process.
This article explores four former doctoral students' perceptions of selves as adult learners and adult educators through an autoethographic dialogue.
This paper is concerned with some issues of English for Occupational Purposes and English for Academic Purposes. The main objective of the paper is to describe possible approaches to integrating EOP and EAP on the basis of the pilot English for Specific Academic Purposes course introduced at National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.