The author's view on the historical significance of two events of 1961 - the flight of Yuri Gagarin and the testing of a hydrogen bomb - is described in the article.
Highlights • Social network methods allow for the studies of actual behavior in academic help. • No barriers exist in social capital exchange between ethnic groups. • Minority and majority students do not differ in academic help behavior. • Academic self-esteem is positively related to help-providing behavior. • Students with lower academic self-esteem seek help more extensively.
Abstract Academic help-seeking and help-providing in school setting streamlines learning process and advances social competencies among students. Little research has examined differential patterns of help-seeking among students of ethnic minority and non-minority status. The present study conceptualizes school help-providing as remedial exchange of social capital among students. To explore possible barriers to such exchange, we compare help-seeking networks among mid-adolescents (15–16 y.o.) of migrant ethnic minority opposite those of non-minority origins, in Russian high schools (N = 3496). The data were collected in 183 classrooms from 49 schools of Greater Moscow area; network information was elicited from students' nominations of their classmates whom they ask for help in Math. Statistical analysis relied on multilevel dyadic p2 model. The data strongly suggest that school performance, academic self-evaluation, and gender are factors affecting help-seeking and help-providing behavior in classroom. By contrast, socio-economic status and, importantly, ethnic minority status had no influence on peer help relations in Moscow schools, suggesting that (1) minority status does not universally introduce stigmatizing barriers in youth social capital exchanges; and (2) majority-minority dynamics may vary as a function of the macro-context in which adolescents are embedded. Implications for further research and policy are discussed in turn.
The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within countries. This variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under-explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty. The research was conducted using data from the ‘Monitoring of Educational Markets and Organizations’ survey. The results show that there is no significant effect of academic inbreeding on publication productivity: no substantial and robust differences in publication activity between inbreds and non-inbreds have been found. The paper finishes with a discussion of possible explanations inherent in the Russian academic system.
“Academic inbreeding”—involving the appointment of faculty members who graduated from the institution employing them—is considered a small and peripheral aspect of the academic profession but is quite widespread globally. This paper analyzes the nature of inbreeding and its impact on universities. Data from eight countries where inbreeding is widespread are analyzed in order to examine the perceived impact of the phenomenon on academics and universities. Our analysis reveals that while inbreeding has deleterious effects on universities, it is widely perceived as a “normal” part of academic life—and some positive aspects are evident.
Student attrition in postsecondary education is a significant public policy problem. Nations invest substantial resources in college systems, and when students leave, this investment is lost. To understand the factors that influence student attrition in US and Russian public universities, we use the perspective of academic momentum, defined empirically as measures representing student enrollment and study progress. Using a discrete-time event history analysis of samples of eight US and two Russian universities, we provide support for the central claims of the academic momentum theory that undergraduate students who progress through college more rapidly have a lower likelihood of attrition. However, a more detailed analysis reveals variability in the relationship between several academic momentum measures and student attrition, depending on a university’s selectivity and the student’s chosen academic field and gender.
This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on budgeting work time. The authors single out and describe eight groups of teachers using various structures for budgeting their working time: (1) teachers; (2) teachers engaged in research; (3) teachers engaged in administrative work; (4) researchers; (5) administrators; (6) teachers/researchers/administrators; (7) teachers/researchers; and (8) teachers/administrators. These groups were classified by comparing professional goals, evaluations of working conditions, the university's strategic goals, and attitudes toward publication policy.
The emergence of many new types of school in post-Soviet Russia raises issues of inequalities in access to quality education. The performance of schools is very uneven, many are failing to provide adequate education, and those that admit their students from the poorer parts of the population need special help and extra resources if they are to improve.
The article describes the use of a number of alternative blended learning models based on a mixture of traditional face-to-face classes with some elements of e-learning in the course of “English for Academic Purposes” (EAP) and “English for Specific Academic Purposes” (ESAP) taught to junior and senior undergraduate students of computer sciences in the undergraduate program of Business Informatics and Software Engineering over a period of time from 2009 to 2012 at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia
The paper grounds the necessity of much earlier socialization of children in the Internet age. The main goal is to make children (including teenagers) be aware of possible social consequences of their misuse of information and communication technologies, in particular, of the cell telephones and the Internet. An original method of early forming the cognitive subspace of moral values and social responsibility is stated. It is a part of the System of Emotional-Imaginative Teaching (the EIT-system) developed and successfully tested by the authors during 1990s – 2000s. For describing this method, a new formal notation for representing transformations of the learners’ cognitive-emotional sphere and the spectrum of information processing skills is proposed, it is called the notation of the maps of cognitive transformations. The described method of early socialization and the EIT-system as a whole are interpreted as an important component of cognitonics - a new scientific discipline. The paper also represents a new way of considering impressionism under the frame of cognitonics. An original algorithm of transforming the negative emotions (caused by the messages received from social networks) into the positive ones is proposed. This algorithm considers the possible reactions of a human (including the recommended reactions) to the emotional attacks via social networks. It is proposed to include an analysis of the kind into the program of the interdisciplinary course “Foundations of secure living in information society”.
In this paper we discuss the process of adapting a tool for measuring statistics anxiety (Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS 36)) in Russia. Our sample consists of 253 political science, sociology, and psychology students in statistics courses. The internal consistency of the Russian SATS is 0.94, however there are some differences in factor structure between the original and the adapted scale.
Currently one of the main tools for the large scale studies of schools is statistical analysis. Although it is the most common method and it offers greatest opportunities for analysis, there are other quantitative methods for studying schools, such as network analysis. We discuss the potential advantages that network analysis has for educational research.
This article presents results of a survey of after-school centre directors concerning the extracurricular activities of children. It was conducted within the framework of the Monitoring of the Economics of Education at the National Research University—Higher School of Economics (HSE). The demographics of students at children's after-school centres, the focus of their programs, and the way these educational institutions are supplied with staff and financing were all analyzed on the basis of the obtained data.
This article explores four former doctoral students' perceptions of selves as adult learners and adult educators through an autoethographic dialogue.
This paper is concerned with some issues of English for Occupational Purposes and English for Academic Purposes. The main objective of the paper is to describe possible approaches to integrating EOP and EAP on the basis of the pilot English for Specific Academic Purposes course introduced at National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Faculty are the main asset of a university and determine its success. The attitudes of faculty toward their institution play an especially important role in the academic profession. This study examines the specific antecedents of affective, normative and continuance commitment of faculty to their university. This study is an online survey of 317 faculty of Russian higher education institutions. The results of the regression analysis showed that being an undergraduate inbred (i.e. working at the university from which one graduated) predicted affective and normative commitment toward the university, while having a post at another higher education institution predicted only affective commitment. Faculty who work at several universities have lower levels of emotional attachment to the primary university.
This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.
This paper is concerned with some issues of English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes. The paper argues that a project-based English for Specific Academic Purposes course needs to integrate some features of Content-Based Instruction, English for Specific Purposes and English for Academic Purposes approaches. This paper attempts to highlight the benefits and challenges of such a course introduced at National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Key words: EAP, ESP, CBI, EFL, project-based learning, reading and writing strategies