The article presents an analysis of the demographic losses from the main causes of death in Russia, in the Republic of Bashkortostan and in OECD countries. Based on analysis of the numbers of deaths and potential years of life lost (PYLL), there was shown the position of external factors in the structure of total mortality in these regions. Although the number of deaths from external causes in both sexes before age 70 was on the 2nd place in 1992-2012 and in all ages one became on the 3rd place since 2006, in terms of PYLL premature loss from these causes had become the biggest threat to public health at least since 1990. There were specified peculiarities of calculation of the PYLL according to the methodology of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The basic conditions of the reduction of mortality from external causes are considered: the formation of vital behaviors among the population, creating a safe environment, an increase in expenditure on health care. Because almost all of the external causes of death are preventable, preventive measures play a major role in the limiting of risk factors, so Russian health system approach should be aimed not only on treatment but first of all on prevention. In addition, there were shown the analytical capabilities of the Haddon Matrix in the classification of the main factors of risk of death from external causes on the example of the suicide.