The kinetics of main types of charged and excited particles present in a low-current discharge in an argon–mercury vapor mixture used in gas-discharge illuminating lamps has been investigated in a wide interval of the reduced electric field strength and temperature. Mechanisms behind the production and loss of ions and metastable atoms have been discovered, and the temperature dependences of their contributions to maintaining their balance have been determined. It has been shown that, when the discharge is initiated in the lamp and the mercury content in the mixture is low, the ionization coefficient exceeds that in pure argon, which is almost exclusively due to the Penning reaction. The influence of this reaction grows with a reduction of the electric field strength in the interelectrode gap. The dependences of the discharge ignition voltage on the interelectrode gap (Paschen curves) for different temperatures of the mixture have been calculated, and the nonmonotonicity of the temperature dependence of the ignition voltage has been explained.
A model of the electric field enhanced thermal (thermo-field) emission of electrons from the metal cathode substrate into a thin insulating film on its surface is developed. A system of equations for the cathode surface temperature in the arc discharge and the electric field strength in the film, providing the required discharge current density, is formulated. It is shown that existence of the insulating film can result in a considerable reduction of the cathode temperature in the discharge due to lower potential barrier height at the metal-insulator boundary than at the metal-discharge boundary in case of the cathode without the film. It is found that due to an enhancement of the thermal emission of electrons into the film by the electric field generated in it, an additional decrease in the cathode temperature by about 100 K takes place.
The multielectrode slipping surface discharge in a two-phase water-gas (methane) medium is studied experimentally as a plasma-chemical converter of methane into various hydrocarbons, carbon, and hydrogen. The energy value of methane decomposition is on the order of 5 eV/molecule, which is close to record-high values attained in high-pressure discharges. The degree of conversion of methane is determined and the possibility of its substantial increase is considered
We present the results of our studies of the semiconducting superlattice (SSL) frequency multiplier and its application as part of the solid state local oscillator (LO) in the terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a NbN hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer. We show that the SSL output power level increases as the ambient temperature is lowered to 4.2 K, the standard HEB operation temperature.
The wave dispersion in the slow-wave structure such as a coaxial ribbed line has been analyzed. For the case of the excitation of an axially symmetric wave in this structure, the generalized dispersion equation has been obtained using the method of sewing the conductivities. The particular cases of a solution of the dispersion equation have been analyzed, as well as its solutions for relatively high and low frequencies, since these cases are of practical interest. The parameters of a coaxial ribbed line have been simulated and the dependences of the slowing coefficient and the wave impedance of the structure on its geometrical dimensions have been obtained.