Alexander Radichtchev, Russian man of letters, writer, and philosopher of the Enlightenment, became famous with his book "Journey from Petersburg to Moscow" (1790), in which he criticized autocracy and serfdom. He was keenly interested in the economic issues of his time and also wrote during his exile in Siberia in 1792 a work especially devoted to the Russian-Chinese trade in Kiakhta. Here, he highlights the opportunities and the drawbacks for Russia in developing trade with China, and the impact of such trade on the national economy and the way of life of the Siberian people. In this article, Radichtchev’s "Letter on trade with China" is thus analyzed as a valuable source for our understanding both of the specific context of the relations between two neighboring empires in the late eighteenth century and of Radichtchev’s own role as a precursor of economics in Russia.
The article illustrates the explicit and implicit correlations between general notions of Russian formalism and its latest subversions in Lectures on Structuralist Poetics by Yuri Lotman. Declared as a manifesto of new approaches to literary structure (above all, verse), Lotman’s work contains a lot of conceptual revisions of formalism, at the same time presenting itself as its successful overcoming. The strong demand to negate all predecessors was canonized by the formalists themselves and, as it is seen in Lotman’s arguments, remained actual for further philological generations.
Inna Naroditskaya's seminal book has transformed our understanding of Russian opera in several ways. In particular, the relatively underestimated importance of 18th-century operas, the role of women therein, and female protagonists, often coupled with mysoginistic undertones, in several 19th-century classics are examined.
The articles discusses some characteristics of the Orthodox religious sociolect. It studies vocabulary of the Orthodox pilgrims. Religious conversion and socialization that follows is is closely connected with and even depends to some extent on the successful learning of the new (religious) sociolect. The article is based on the field research made among Russian Orthodox pilgrims in the North-west of Russia. Special attention in the research is paid to the emic concept (and word) 'namolenny'.
Статья посвящена реконструкции историко-культурного контекста рубежа 1920-30-х гг. и интеллекутальных практик, которые позволяли молодому поколению авангардистов сочетать интерес к экспериментальному искусству с советскими идеологическими установками.
Images from ancient mythology and literature were predominant mythopoetic components of Russian modernist poetry. Global historical cataclysms of the first decades of the twentieth century, however, prompted Russian poets to turn to biblical imagery. Influenced by revolutionary upheavals, poets began to interpret contemporary events through the prism of biblical archetypes. My essay discusses a number of biblical images that attained special actuality in the period of “wars and revolutions,” 1914–1922. WWI and the Civil War were depicted through the imagery of the fratricidal Cain and Abel story. The 1917 revolutions were widely perceived through the imagery of major biblical events -- creation, the Deluge, or the Exodus. The aim of the revolutions was often associated with the imagery of the Garden of Eden, and, accordingly, the generation of the revolution was associated with Adam and Eve. An axiologically opposite vision of the Bolshevik revolution likewise employed biblical imagery: the pre-revolutionary world was portrayed as Paradise lost, while “the fall into sin,” fratricides, and attempts to build the tower of Babel came in its wake. My paper also discusses the transformations in the self-perception of many Russian modernist poets under the influence of revolutionary events. The typological vision of contemporary times as equivalent to biblical times actualized the figure of the biblical prophet as a prototype for a modern Russian poet.
One peculiarity of XIX-XX cent. Russian philosophy consists in its treating communication as a self-value. Shpet projects this attitude onto the methodology of humanities, thus opening its new dimension - that of “historical semasiology”. While reconstructing methodological programs of science, he rejects the alternative of both experience and pure logic as possible supports in order to reveal, by means of phenomenological procedure, the real domain where logic and experience correspond to each other in performing the main function of cognition. This is the domain of “expression” or “presentation” (“communicative aspect of cognition”). Shpet’s intent “to distinguish nominative function of the word, resp. its nominal object-relatedness, from its semasiological function, resp. its object-relatedness to meaning ” is of vital importance for humanities today.
The articles questions the forms of representation of the visual in Daniil Kharms' works and especially in a series of drawings he made in 1919.
The article is devoted to the history and specific characteristics of the Moscow-Tartu semiotic school. The author tries to demonstrate the intrinsic connection of the school with the philological background of its representatives. The main purpose of the school was not so much to build a new semiotic theory as to suggest an approach revealing the principal similarity of various aspects of human culture.