We investigate the absorption properties of U-shaped niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires atop nanophotonic circuits. Nanowires as narrow as 20nm are realized in direct contact with Si3N4 waveguides and their absorption properties are extracted through balanced measurements. We perform a full characterization of the absorption coefficient in dependence of length, width and separation of the fabricated nanowires, as well as for waveguides with different cross-section and etch depth. Our results show excellent agreement with finite-element analysis simulations for all considered parameters. The experimental data thus allows for optimizing absorption properties of emerging single-photon detectors co-integrated with telecom wavelength optical circuits.
We present an active anti-latching system for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. We experimentally test it against a bright-light attack, previously used to compromise security of quantum key distribution. Although our system detects continuous blinding, the detector is shown to be partially blindable and controllable by specially tailored sequences of bright pulses. Improvements to the countermeasure are suggested.
Surface plasmon polaritons are commonly believed to be a future basis for the next generation of optoelectronic and all-optical devices. To achieve this, it is critical that the surface plasmon polariton modes be strongly confined to the surface and have a sufficiently long propagation length and a nanosize wavelength. As of today, in the visible part of the spectrum, these conditions are not satisfied for any type of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the ultraviolet range, surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a periodically nanostructured aluminum-dielectric interface have all these properties. Both the confinement length and the wavelength of the mode considered are smaller than the period of the structure, which can be as small as 10 nm. At the same time, the propagation length of new surface plasmon-polaritons can reach dozens of its wavelengths. These plasmon polaritons can be observed in materials that are uncommon in plasmonics such as aluminum. The suggested modes can be used for miniaturization of optical devices.
We investigate how the bias current affects the hot-spot relaxation dynamics in niobium nitride. We use for this purpose a near-infrared pump-probe technique on a waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detector driven in the two-photon regime. We observe a strong increase in the picosecond relaxation time for higher bias currents. A minimum relaxation time of (22 ± 1) ps is obtained when applying a bias current of 50% of the switching current at 1.7 K bath temperature. We also propose a practical approach to accurately estimate the photon detection regimes based on the reconstruction of the measured detector tomography at different bias currents and for different illumination conditions.
Landau damping in the metal nanosphere is considered beyond the quasi-static approximation with the use of exact Mie theory when an incident plane wave can excite not only the dipole mode but also higher order modes. In resonance approximation, when one considers excitation of a single-mode, the analytical formula for the Landau damping coefficient for various modes have been derived. It was demonstrated that the simultaneous excitation of several eigenmodes, which are overlapped in the frequency domain, can lead to substantial correction of the Landau damping coefficients for the modes.
Here, we report on the successful operation of a NbN thin film superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) in a coherent mode (as a mixer) at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. Providing the local oscillator power of the order of a few picowatts, we were practically able to reach the quantum noise limited sensitivity. The intermediate frequency gain bandwidth (also referred to as response or conversion bandwidth) was limited by the spectral band of a single-photon response pulse of the detector, which is proportional to the detector size. We observed a gain bandwidth of 65 MHz and 140 MHz for 7 × 7 µm2 and 3 × 3 µm2 devices, respectively. A tiny amount of the required local oscillator power and wide gain and noise bandwidths, along with unnecessary low noise amplification, make this technology prominent for various applications, with the possibility for future development of a photon counting heterodyne-born large-scale array.
We report room temperature injection lasing in the yellow–orange spectral range (599–605 nm) in (AlxGa1–x)0.5In0.5P–GaAs diodes with 4 layers of tensilestrained InyGa1–yP quantum dot-like insertions. The wafers were grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy side-by-side on (811), (211) and (322) GaAs substrates tilted towards the <111> direction with respect to the (100) surface. Four sheets of GaP-rich quantum barrier insertions were applied to suppress leakage of non-equilibrium electrons from the gain medium. Laser diodes having a threshold current densities of ~7–10 kA/cm2 at room temperature were realized for both (211) and (322) surface orientations at cavity lengths of ~1mm. Emission wavelength at room temperature ~600 nm is shorter by ~8 nm than previously reported. As an opposite example, the devices grown on (811) GaAs substrates did not show lasing at room temperature.
Apart from the main plasmon-polariton resonance of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) occurring at 480 - 530 nm, an additional resonance was observed for substrates with two silver layers separated by a dielectric layer which support extra plasmon modes with decreased group velocities. The novel SERS resonance is shifted towards lower energies and has comparable amplitude,its exact energy position being determined by the thickness of the dielectric interlayer. The experimental findings provide a ground for the engineering of SERS-substrates with the spectral position of the additional resonance matched with the photon energy of the pump laser over a fairly wide range of laser wavelengths.
Exceptionally strong enhancement of the Raman signal exceeding eight orders of magnitude for near-infrared (1064 nm) excitation is demonstrated for an array of dielectric submicron pillars covered by a relatively thick metal layer. The microstructure is designed to support ‘spoof’ plasmon-polariton excitations with resonant frequencies significantly below the fundamental surface plasmon resonance. Experiments reveal a relatively narrow range of spatial parameters for the optimal resonant scattering enhancement. They include a period close to the excitation wavelength, a specific ratio of the pillar planar size to the period, and optimal heights of both the pillars and the covering silver metal layer. The realized microstructures can be produced by fab-compatible photolithography techniques, and their outstanding sensing possibilities open the venue for the biomedical applications.
The behavior of the TE and TM electromagnetic waves in graphene at the interface between two semi-infinite dielectric media is studied. The dramatic influence on the TE waves propagation even at very small changes in the optical contrast between the two dielectric media is predicted. Frequencies of the TE waves are found to lie only in the window determined by the contrast. We consider this effect in connection with the design of graphene-based optical gas sensor. Near the frequency, where the imaginary part of the conductivity of graphene becomes zero, ultrahigh refractive index sensitivity and very low detection limit are revealed. The considered graphene-based optical gas sensor outperforms characteristics of modern volume refractive index sensors by several orders of magnitude.
We show theoretically and experimentally that distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) supports a surface electromagnetic wave exhibiting evanescent decay in the air and oscillatory decay in the DBR. The wave exists in TM polarization only. The field extension in the air may reach several wavelengths of light. Once gain medium is introduced into the DBR a novel class of diode lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers, light-emitting diodes, etc. can be developed allowing a new type of in-plane or near-field light outcoupling. To improve the wavelength stability of the laser diode, a resonant cavity structure can be coupled to the DBR, allowing a coupled state of the cavity mode and the near-field mode. A GaAlAs-based epitaxial structure of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) having an antiwaveguiding cavity and multiple GaInAs quantum wells as an active region was grown and processed as an in–plane Fabry-Pérot resonator with cleaved facets. Windows in the top stripe contact were made to facilitate monitoring of the optical modes. Three types of the optical modes were observed in electroluminescence (EL) studies under high current densities > 1 kA/cm2. Mode A with the longest wavelength is a VCSEL–like mode emitting normal to the surface. Mode B has a shorter wavelength, emitting light at two symmetric lobes tilted with respect to the normal to the surface in the direction parallel to the stripe. Mode C has the shortest wavelength and shifts with a temperature at a rate 0.06 nm/K. Polarization studies reveal predominantly TE emission for modes A and B and purely TM for mode C in agreement with the theory. Spectral position, thermal shift and polarization of mode C confirm it to be a coupled state of the cavity mode and near-field DBR surface-trapped mode.