As a result of development of the network technologies and horizontal integration of social processes, a new financial instrument - equity сrowdfunding – has been formed. This innovative method ensures over-the-counter offerings, which expands the sphere of public financing to small and medium-sized business. However, implementation of this instrument calls for some changes in legislation for the stock market.
This paper presents a complex analysis of the main changes in the US legislative base, features EU legal standards, and identifies key elements of the economic-legislative regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, current Russian legislation is analyzed - with evaluation of its adaptiveness to changes in accordance with global practices.
In the next two years, the UK will be faced with a complicated geopolitical situation. The relations with its two key partners – the EU and the USA – will be changed. The USA, when dealing with European issues, will begin to rely on Germany rather than on the UK. It will be necessary to negtiate with the EU a new relationship model that will envisage that the UK should not participate in the decision-making process inside the European Union, and should have no internal inﬂuence there. Simultaneously, there will be a need for negotiations on new trade agreements with a number of countries that are not EU member states, because the UK, once it has withdrawn from the US, will automatically ﬁ nd itself outside of the international trade agreements concluded on behalf of the EU, including those in the framework of the WTO.
In mid-April 2013, the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization (WTO) published an annual analytical review on the basis of the results of development of the international trade in 2012 and the prospects of its development in 2013. The above document includes as well the initial statistical data on the global trade in goods and services by the country in 2012.
Less than a hundred days passed from inauguration of Donald Trump but it is already clear: the 45th president of the United States does not plan to stop using diplomatic tools and global institutions for the implementation of his foreign policy, whose priorities are American interests and the US national security. Despite the harsh rhetoric in the UN, cooperation with the Organization on key areas of its activities: promotion of development, peacekeeping and humanitarian affairs would continue. The Group of seven and the G20 leaders have much more common priorities and common objectives than differences. A detailed plan of the country’s participation in the work of the various WTO bodies suggests that talk of revising United States policy with regard to WTO prematurely. D. Trampe continue United States leadership in NATO, and the requirement of increasing defence budgets partners doesn’t mean the reduction of military expenditures, United States.
The paper deals with fertility in regions of Russia in 2018. The tendency common for Russian regions in that year was a decrease of fertility of 1 st and 2 nd children with a rise of fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children. Fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children was higher in regions with low level of incomes and employment. However, growth of this fertility parameter in the recent years was not concentrated in economically underdeveloped regions. Higher fertility in regions of the North Caucasus gets a separate treatment, which differs considerable from country-level patterns both in its level and age characteristics.
The current change in expectations concerning the prospects of global economy development is reflected in weakening demand for metallurgy products, primarily in China. International and Russian domestic producer prices for the major types of metal goods continue to decline. The rouble weakness no longer suffices for the Russian metallurgical industry to sustainably overcome the slump, let alone to resume its development. The dwindling domestic demand has pushed up Russian metallurgy exports in physical terms, although they have significantly declined in money terms.
A suspension of trucking between Russia and Poland and subsequent shutdown of road freight transportation between Russia and Ukraine have made Russian freight carriers switchover par ally their routes to those via the Baltic States. It is to be noted that Poland and Ukraine which initiated border closure for carriers were affected the most by suspension of trucking. Probably, assessment of negative effects prompted Russia and Poland to exchange permits to trucking (170,000 licenses to each side till the end of the year) on 1 April 2016.
In 2018, natural decline in population of Russia constituted 218.4 thousand people. This situation resulted from a reduction of birth rate and a slight reduction of mortality compared to that in previous year. Current life expectancy is 72.84 years for any gender, 67.66 years for men and 77.87 years for women. Birth rate is equal to 1.597 per one woman in reproductive age. Net migration fell down to 124.9 thousand people in 2018 and did not compensate the decline of population. Temporary migration has slightly changed as well as number of labor migrants in the Russian Federation. Most foreign employees are from CIS countries with growing share from Central Asia and less migrants from western countries of CIS. Regional overview of 2018 social results is quite contradictive. Negative dynamics of housing construction and household income was going on in most regions. Growth of retail trade was supported by intensive bank crediting of households especially in the resource mining regions and underdeveloped national republics. For regional budgets 2018 year was more positive, however the effect seems to be temporary. 22% increase of budget transfers, the rise of the world raw materials prices and its taxes contributed to the growth of income. Social priorities, healthcare and education, dominated in the dynamics of expenditures. However, this was the result of implementation of “wage” Executive Orders of the President. Regional gaps in social protection expenditures increased. While for all regions except Moscow expenditures on social payments minus compulsory medical insurance for unemployed population did not increased in real terms. In Moscow budget expenditures on social payments enlarged by 30%. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
According to the results of Q1 2017, in 34 Russian regions households' incomes increased as compared to the relevant period of the previous year, however, in most constituent entities of the Russian Federation (62 regions) consumption kept falling. The crisis is not yet over on regional labor markets despite the low level of the inflation rate. In 15-20 most problem regions, partial employment is going down slowly and wage arrears are growing again. In the period under review, social expenditures of regional budgets rose ahead of the inflation rate thanks to considerable growth in revenues. As generations which are currently at the peak of their reproduction age are small, Russia has entered a long period (at least for a decade) of a falling birth rate. Unlike 2016, this trend has affected all the regions of the Russian Federation. Though the death rate keeps falling, it is not enough to offset the reduction of the birth rate: in January-April 2017 the natural decline in the population amounted to 93,000 people.