As a result of development of the network technologies and horizontal integration of social processes, a new financial instrument - equity сrowdfunding – has been formed. This innovative method ensures over-the-counter offerings, which expands the sphere of public financing to small and medium-sized business. However, implementation of this instrument calls for some changes in legislation for the stock market.
This paper presents a complex analysis of the main changes in the US legislative base, features EU legal standards, and identifies key elements of the economic-legislative regulatory mechanism. In conclusion, current Russian legislation is analyzed - with evaluation of its adaptiveness to changes in accordance with global practices.
In the next two years, the UK will be faced with a complicated geopolitical situation. The relations with its two key partners – the EU and the USA – will be changed. The USA, when dealing with European issues, will begin to rely on Germany rather than on the UK. It will be necessary to negtiate with the EU a new relationship model that will envisage that the UK should not participate in the decision-making process inside the European Union, and should have no internal inﬂuence there. Simultaneously, there will be a need for negotiations on new trade agreements with a number of countries that are not EU member states, because the UK, once it has withdrawn from the US, will automatically ﬁ nd itself outside of the international trade agreements concluded on behalf of the EU, including those in the framework of the WTO.
In mid-April 2013, the Secretariat of the World Trade Organization (WTO) published an annual analytical review on the basis of the results of development of the international trade in 2012 and the prospects of its development in 2013. The above document includes as well the initial statistical data on the global trade in goods and services by the country in 2012.
Less than a hundred days passed from inauguration of Donald Trump but it is already clear: the 45th president of the United States does not plan to stop using diplomatic tools and global institutions for the implementation of his foreign policy, whose priorities are American interests and the US national security. Despite the harsh rhetoric in the UN, cooperation with the Organization on key areas of its activities: promotion of development, peacekeeping and humanitarian affairs would continue. The Group of seven and the G20 leaders have much more common priorities and common objectives than differences. A detailed plan of the country’s participation in the work of the various WTO bodies suggests that talk of revising United States policy with regard to WTO prematurely. D. Trampe continue United States leadership in NATO, and the requirement of increasing defence budgets partners doesn’t mean the reduction of military expenditures, United States.
The number of births in January-April 2020 is 5.6% lower than in the same period of 2019, the absolute mortality rate is 3% lower. The natural decline in Russia’s population accounts to 160,300 people. During the period of quarantine the birth and mortality data were under-reported; therefore the figures will be adjusted in the future. In April 2020, 2,712 deaths (1.8%) were registered with COVID-19 as the main or associated cause of death.
The growth of Russia’s population due to migration in January-April 2020 was the lowest for the last decade. Migration compensated 24.6% of the natural decline of the population. Quarantine restrictions had affected not only migration itself but also the place of residence change registration process. The number of in-country migrations recorded by Rosstat decreased by 20% as compared to January-April 2019.
By the beginning of the summer of 2020, there were 4.08 million migrant workers in Russia – 8% fewer than a year ago. The most significant reduction is from Ukraine (by a third) and Moldova (by a quarter). Declining share of migrants working legally will be the main problem after the quarantine stage of the labor market.
A sharp decline in tax revenues has occurred in the vast majority of the regions of the Russian Federation. The April 2020 consolidated regional budgets loss accounts for almost 3% of 2019 annual revenues. The registered unemployment rate increased by a factor of 1.5 to 2, being the highest in large and most developed regions with more pronounced service sector employment. Retail trade turnover fell by more than a quarter. Paid services consumption fell even deeper (by 38%) not only due to quarantine restrictions but also to growing housing and utility services arrears. There was an industrial decline in 2/3 of the regions in April, while in January-April housing construction has been reduced in 2/3 of regions.
A «child» mortgage program is targeted on families who gave birth to a second or subsequent child after January 1, 2018. As for April 2020 demand for the program accounts for 4% of the target group. It is higher in the North-Western, Central and Volga Federal Districts. The demand is weaker in the most regions of the North Caucasus Federal District, where the people are less likely to take any mortgages.
The article was written on the basis of the RANEPA state assignment research programme.
The paper deals with fertility in regions of Russia in 2018. The tendency common for Russian regions in that year was a decrease of fertility of 1 st and 2 nd children with a rise of fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children. Fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children was higher in regions with low level of incomes and employment. However, growth of this fertility parameter in the recent years was not concentrated in economically underdeveloped regions. Higher fertility in regions of the North Caucasus gets a separate treatment, which differs considerable from country-level patterns both in its level and age characteristics.
The current change in expectations concerning the prospects of global economy development is reflected in weakening demand for metallurgy products, primarily in China. International and Russian domestic producer prices for the major types of metal goods continue to decline. The rouble weakness no longer suffices for the Russian metallurgical industry to sustainably overcome the slump, let alone to resume its development. The dwindling domestic demand has pushed up Russian metallurgy exports in physical terms, although they have significantly declined in money terms.
A suspension of trucking between Russia and Poland and subsequent shutdown of road freight transportation between Russia and Ukraine have made Russian freight carriers switchover par ally their routes to those via the Baltic States. It is to be noted that Poland and Ukraine which initiated border closure for carriers were affected the most by suspension of trucking. Probably, assessment of negative effects prompted Russia and Poland to exchange permits to trucking (170,000 licenses to each side till the end of the year) on 1 April 2016.