The atomic structure of the disordered phase formed by oxygen on Ag(111) at low coverage
is determined by a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density
functional theory. We demonstrate that the previous assignment of the dark objects in STM to
chemisorbed oxygen atoms is incorrect and incompatible with trefoil-like structures observed in
atomic-resolution images in current work. In our model, each object is an oxide-like ring formed by
six oxygen atoms around the vacancy in Ag(111). The saturation coverage of the disordered phase
was found to be 0.36 ML, being six time larger than in the previous models.
We investigate transport and shot noise in lateral normal-metal–3D topological-insulator–superconductor contacts, where the 3D topological insulator (TI) is based on Bi. In the normal state, the devices are in the elastic diffusive transport regime, as demonstrated by a nearly universal value of the shot noise Fano factor FN≈1/3 in magnetic field and in a reference normal-metal contact. In the absence of magnetic field, we identify the Andreev reflection (AR) regime, which gives rise to the effective charge doubling in shot noise measurements. Surprisingly, the Fano factor FAR≈0.22±0.02is considerably reduced in the AR regime compared to FN, in contrast to previous AR experiments in normal metals and semiconductors. We suggest that this effect is related to a finite thermal conduction of the proximized, superconducting TI owing to a residual density of states at low energies.
The fractal globule state is a popular model for describing chromatin packing in eukaryotic nuclei. Here we provide a scaling theory and dissipative particle dynamics computer simulation for the thermal motion of monomers in the fractal globule state. Simulations starting from different entanglement-free initial states show good convergence which provides evidence supporting the existence of a unique metastable fractal globule state. We show monomer motion in this state to be subdiffusive described by X2(t) ∼tαF with αF close to 0.4. This result is in good agreement with existing experimental data on the chromatin dynamics, which makes an additional argument in support of the fractal globule model of chromatin packing. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Resonant optical excitation was used to create a macroscopic nonequilibrium ensemble of “dark” excitons with an unprecedented long lifetime in a two-dimensional electron system placed in a quantizing magnetic field. Exotic three-particle and four-particle states, plasmarons and plasmon-exciton molecules, coupled with the surrounding electrons through the collective plasma oscillations are engineered. Plasmarons and plasmon-exciton molecules are manifested as new features in the recombination spectra of nonequilibrium systems.
We report on a new effect caused by the electron-phonon coupling in a stoichiometric rare-earth antiferromagnetic crystal subjected to an external magnetic field, namely, the appearance of a nonzero gap in the spectrum of electronic excitations in an arbitrarily small field. The effect was registered in the low-temperature far-infrared (terahertz) reflection spectra of an easy-axis antiferromagnet PrFe3(BO3)4 in magnetic fields Bext-c. Both paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases (including a spin-flop one) were studied in magnetic fields up to 30 T, and two bifurcation points were observed. We show that the field behavior of the coupled modes can be successfully explained and modeled on the basis of the equation derived in the framework of the theory of coupled electron-phonon modes, with the same field-independent electron-phonon interaction constant |W|=14.8 cm-1.
We propose a way to increase the lifetime of two-dimensional direct excitons and show the possibility to observe their macroscopically coherent state at temperatures much higher than that of indirect exciton condensation. For a single GaAs quantum well embedded in photonic layered heterostructures with subwavelength period, we predict the exciton radiative decay to be strongly suppressed. Quantum hydrodynamics joined with the Bogoliubov approach are used to study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover in a finite exciton system with intermediate densities. Below the estimated critical temperatures, drastic growth of the correlation length is shown to be accompanied by a manyfold increase of the photoluminescence intensity.
The polar phase of 3He, which is topological spin-triplet superfluid with the Dirac nodal line in the spectrum of Bogoliubov quasiparticles, has been recently stabilized in a nanoconfined geometry. We pump magnetic excitations (magnons) into the sample of polar phase and observe how they form a Bose-Einstein condensate, revealed by coherent precession of the magnetization of the sample. Spin superfluidity, which supports this coherence, is associated with the spontaneous breaking of U(1) symmetry by the phase of precession. We observe the corresponding Nambu-Goldstone boson and measure its mass emerging when applied rf field violates the U(1) symmetry explicitly. We suggest that the magnon BEC in the polar phase is a powerful probe for topological objects such as vortices and solitons and topological nodes in the fermionic spectrum.
A measurement of the Higgs boson mass is presented based on the combined data samples of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN LHC in the H→γγH→γγ and H→ZZ→4ℓH→ZZ→4ℓ decay channels. The results are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the reconstructed invariant mass peaks in the two channels and for the two experiments. The measured masses from the individual channels and the two experiments are found to be consistent among themselves. The combined measured mass of the Higgs boson is mH=125.09±0.21(stat.)±0.11(syst.) GeVmH=125.09±0.21(stat.)±0.11(syst.) GeV.
have reported the results obtained with a network of thermal neutron detectors. They have observed an interesting phenomena—a decrease of neutron counting rate during the rainfalls after a long period of dry weather
The results of simultaneous radio and gamma emission measurements during thunderstorms are presented. A gamma detector situated at the height 3840 m and two radio detectors of Tien-Shan Mountain Scientific Station (altitude 3340 m) registered intensive gamma flashes and radio pulses during the time of lightning initiation. The radio-gamma correlation grows abruptly at the initial moment (a few hundred microseconds), and the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9–0.95. The gamma-energy spectrum measured during lightning initiation is close to the characteristic spectrum of runaway breakdown. Radio pulses observed at the same time have highest amplitudes. Combined observation of gamma and radio emissions confirm the conception of lightning initiation due to multiple simultaneous electric discharges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by low-energy electrons generated in the runaway breakdown process.
Quantum fluctuations in quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channels leading to spontaneous changes of the phase of the order parameter by 2, alternatively called quantum phase slips (QPS), manifest themselves as the finite resistance well below the critical temperature of thin superconducting nanowires and the suppression of persistent currents in tiny superconducting nanorings. Here we report the experimental evidence that in a current-biased superconducting nanowire the same QPS process is responsible for the insulating state—the Coulomb blockade. When exposed to rf radiation, the internal Bloch oscillations can be synchronized with the external rf drive leading to formation of quantized current steps on the I-V characteristic. The effects originate from the fundamental quantum duality of a Josephson junction and a superconducting nanowire governed by QPS—the QPS junction
We theoretically analyze exciton-photon oscillatory dynamics within a homogenous polariton condensate in presence of energy detuning between the cavity and quantum well modes. Whereas pure Rabi oscillations consist of the particle exchange between the photon and exciton components in the polariton system without any oscillations of their quantum phases, we demonstrate that any non-zero detuning results in oscillations of the relative phase of the photon and exciton macroscopic wave functions. Different initial conditions reveal a variety of behaviors of the relative phase between the two condensates, and a crossover from Rabi-like to Josephson-like oscillations is predicted
Spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuBr4 with distorted triangular-lattice structures are studied by means of electron spin resonance spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to the saturation field and above. In the magnetically saturated phase, quantum fluctuations are fully suppressed, and the spin dynamics is defined by ordinary magnons. This allows us to accurately describe the magnetic excitation spectra in both materials and, using the harmonic spin-wave theory, to determine their exchange parameters. The viability of the proposed method was proven by applying it to Cs2CuCl4, yielding J/kB=4.7(2) K, J′/kB=1.42(7) K, [J′/J≃0.30] and revealing good agreement with inelastic neutron-scattering results. For the isostructural Cs2CuBr4, we obtain J/kB=14.9(7) K, J′/kB=6.1(3) K, [J′/J≃0.41], providing exact and conclusive information on the exchange couplings in this frustrated spin system.
From magnetic, specific heat, 170Yb Mossbauer effect, neutron diffraction, and muon spin relaxation measurements on polycrystalline Yb2Sn2O7, we show that below the first order transition at 0.15 K all of the Yb3+ ions are long-range magnetically ordered and each has a moment of 1.1 Bohr magneton which lies at 10 degrees to a common fourfold cubic axis. The four sublattice moments have four different directions away from this axis and are therefore noncoplanar. We term this arrangement splayed ferromagnetism. This ground state has a dynamical component with a fluctuation rate in the megahertz range. The net ferromagnetic exchange interaction has an anisotropy that favors the local threefold axis. We discuss our results in terms of the phase diagram proposed by Savary and Balents [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 037202 (2012)] for a pyrochlore lattice of Kramers S=1/2 effective spins.
We report results of experiments with superfluid 3He confined in aerogels with parallel strands which lead to anisotropic scattering of 3He quasiparticles. We vary boundary conditions for the scattering by covering the strands with different numbers of atomic 4He layers and observe that the superfluid phase diagram and the nature of superfluid phases strongly depend on the coverage. We assume the main reason for these phenomena is a magnetic channel of the scattering which becomes important at low coverages and can be essential in other Fermi systems with triplet pairing.
A full amplitude analysis of Λ 0 b → J/ψ pπ− decays is performed with a data sample acquired with the LHCb detector from 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb−1 . A significantly better description of the data is achieved when, in addition to the previously observed nucleon excitations N → pπ−, either the Pc(4380)+ and Pc(4450)+ → J/ψ p states, previously observed in Λ 0 b → J/ψ pK− decays, or the Zc(4200)− → J/ψ π− state, previously reported in B0 → J/ψ K+π − decays, or all three, are included in the amplitude models. The data support a model containing all three exotic states, with a significance of more than three standard deviations. Within uncertainties, the data are consistent with the Pc(4380)+ and Pc(4450)+ production rates expected from their previous observation taking account of Cabibbo suppression.
The OPERA experiment was designed to study νμ→ντ oscillations in the appearance mode in the CERN to Gran Sasso Neutrino beam (CNGS). In this Letter, we report the final analysis of the full data sample collected between 2008 and 2012, corresponding to 17.97×1019 protons on target. Selection criteria looser than in previous analyses have produced ten ντ candidate events, thus reducing the statistical uncertainty in the measurement of the oscillation parameters and of ντ properties. A multivariate approach for event identification has been applied to the candidate events and the discovery of ντ appearance is confirmed with an improved significance level of 6.1σ. |Δm232| has been measured, in appearance mode, with an accuracy of 20%. The measurement of the ντ charged-current cross section, for the first time with a negligible contamination from ¯ντ, and the first direct evidence for the ντ lepton number are also reported.
Charm meson oscillations are observed in a time-dependent analysis of the ratio of D0 → K+π −π +π − to D0 → K−π +π −π + decay rates, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1 recorded by the LHCb experiment. The measurements presented are sensitive to the phase-space averaged ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favoured amplitudes r K3π D and the product of the coherence factor RK3π D and a charm mixing parameter y 0 K3π . The constraints measured are r K3π D = (5.67±0.12)×10−2 , which is the most precise determination to date, and RK3π D · y 0 K3π = (0.3 ± 1.8) × 10−3 , which provides useful input for determinations of the CP-violating phase γ in B±→ DK±, D→ K∓π ±π ∓π ± decays. The analysis also gives the most precise measurement of the D0 → K+π −π +π − branching fraction, and the first observation of D0–D0 oscillations in this decay mode, with a significance of 8.2 standard deviations.
Chromosomes are key players of cell physiology, their dynamics provides valuable information about its physical organization. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the short-time motion of chromosomal loci has been described with a Rouse model in a simple or viscoelastic medium. However, little emphasis has been put on the influence of the folded organization of chromosomes on the local dynamics. Clearly, stress propagation, and thus dynamics, must be affected by such organization, but a theory allowing us to extract such information from data, e.g., on two-point correlations, is lacking. Here, we describe a theoretical framework able to answer this general polymer dynamics question. We provide a scaling analysis of the stress-propagation time between two loci at a given arclength distance along the chromosomal coordinate. The results suggest a precise way to assess folding information from the dynamical coupling of chromosome segments. Additionally, we realize this framework in a specific model of a polymer whose long-range interactions are designed to make it fold in a fractal way and immersed in a medium characterized by subdiffusive fractional Langevin motion with a tunable scaling exponent. This allows us to derive explicit analytical expressions for the correlation functions.
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.