The authors identified, systematized and analyzed incidence rates of acute infectious diseases in the Russian Empire and the USSR in 1887-1949. It was found that in the USSR in the 1930s and early 1940s there was an increase in the incidence of infectious diseases. The reasons for this growth are shown
The authors identified, systematized and analyzed incidence rates of acute infectious diseases in the USSR in 1950-1990. The results of a comparative analysis of the incidence rates of infectious diseases in the USSR and the USA are presented. It is proved that, contrary to the existing opinion in the literature, the epidemic incidence in the USSR was not eliminated. The incidence of many infectious diseases was significantly higher than in the USA.
The article presents data on the number of doctors and the security of the population of the Russian Empire in 1809-1913 that suggest that the health care system of the Russian Empire at that time could not effectively perform the function of public health.
The article is based on original documents of portion of archive of professor V.D. Shervinsky being kept in the Department of History of Medicine of The Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «N.A. Semashko National Research Institute of Public Health». The article analyzes a number of documents from the mentioned archive testifying scientific public activities of V.D. Shervinsky related to establishment of the societies of physicians and organization of congresses of physicians. The active scientific public activities of professor V.D. Shervinsky continued up to 1930s.
The article based on the detected archives represented a historical reconstruction of the organization of learning the basics of medicine at the seminaries, which operated in Russia in 1837-1866 years. Called the initiators and organizers of this system, analyzes the main results of operations.
Road traffic injuries and their consequences are increasing global problem. In 2014, Russia ranked first in the number of deaths from traffic accidents per 1 million population among the countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Objective: to identify the age and sex characteristics and dynamics of the burden of road traffic deaths in Russia. Methods: Non-clinical observational study, the object of which is the years of life lost due to premature mortality due to road accidents in Russia, calculated as the product of the numbers of deaths from road accidents, based on impersonal Rosstat data, and standard life expectancy (LE) on the annual age group for men and women between 2000 and 2012. Results: For men aged 20-34 years accounted for 50% of the total number of years of life lost due to a traffic accident in 2012; for women aged 20-34 - 37%.Reducing the number of years of life lost per 1000 men / women occurred in all age groups over the period. The sharp decline in the rate of increase in losses between 2007 and 2009 ended in 2010. The pace of growth of losses began to increase in almost all age groups after 2010. The pace of growth of losses for men aged 15-19 was so significant that the number of years of life lost per 1000 males in 2012 (29.8 per 1,000 men), almost back to the level of 2000 (30.8 per 1,000 men).
The article reveals the conditions for creation of concept of “the Soviet medicine” and traces the evolution of its principles i.e. the understanding of its key features. The source base was created on extracted their formulations from the program texts of Bolsheviks, journal publications of medical administrators, minutes of meetings of historians of medicine and textbooks on the organization of health care. The study demonstrated how during the hundred years (1918—2018) the semantics of formulations changed quite radically. The explanation is proposed concerning how and why the former meanings were lost and the form of statements sacralized.
The mortality rate from external causes in general and individual causes within this class in Russia is two times higher than similar levels in the developed countries. However, a number of researchers who deal with medical certification of the death, have written about the underestimation of mortality from external causes such as homicides, suicides, alcohol poisonings, etc. and translating them into latent form. In this regard, on the topic of external reasons, an interview was held with leading experts in the field of demography, statistics and medicine. On the basis of studying experts' opinion article describes issues of quantitative and qualitative statistical registration of mortality from external causes in Russia. According to experts, statistics on external causes must be published on detailed codes of the ICD-10. So, despite the fact that overall levels of mortality from external causes and their types are seen on the basis of the Mortality Tabulation List of ICD-10, but it is often insufficient for a deep and detailed analysis of the mortality. The experts also opined on the reasons for the growth of injuries with undetermined intent, and ways to reduce mortality from these causes, among which the main are changing in the requirements for filling and modification of procedure for issuance of death certificates; legislative securing the position that a beginning of the investigation should serve as a statement, a message about the crime, and not a rule of procedure on the criminal case; cardinal improvement of the system of forensic examination.
The article presents materials characterizing the state of health care system in the USSR in 1960—1980s. The main attention is paid to the complex of unresolved problems that had negative impact on capacity and quality of population medical care. The conclusions concerning factors weakening state health care system during last decades of the USSR existence are expressed and justified.
The article analyzes negative changes in the USSR population health in the era of stagnation. These changes are traced on the basis of statistical indices of physical development, morbidity of infectious and mental diseases, mortality and life expectancy. The mentioned data are compared with indices of ecological pollution, drinking water and foodstuff quality. The study results are explained by political decisions on reclamation of unsettled territories, developing of all-Union constructions, (anti)alcohol campaigns.