Models of slow-wave structures are used in simulating millimetre band devices are considered in the research. It is reasonable to use axially-symmetric slow-wave structures (SWS) for designing millimetre band traveling wave tubes (TWT). Simulating of considered slow-wave structure's 3D model produced in HFSS software package . The program that is outlined in  is used for calculation of dispersion characteristics. The model of slow-wave structure cell bases on the results of calculation. The nature of the distribution of the electromagnetic field in the system depends on the interaction features of electrons and the field in the TWT with slow-wave structure. The discrete approach described in  is the most common for solving this type of problems. It is electrodynamically justified to use difference equation for description of the discrete interaction in a traveling wave tube, in which the phase of the field in the interaction gaps in the longitudinal direction remains constant. The difference form of the electrodynamic theory of excitation allows to justify the use of one or another mathematical model for constructing a finite-difference equation . The coefficients of the finite-difference equation have a certain electrodynamic significance because they are calculated through the transmission matrix coefficients of the 2-N pole. Mathematical model of discrete interaction becomes more accurate when accuracy of coefficients of the finite-difference equation increases. In the research the 2-N pole is sextopole that appears form octopole in case of excitation current absence. The resulting sextopole is a mathematical model of the slow-wave structure cell. Coefficients of the obtained 2-N pole justifies accuracy, realism and recuperation of Electrodynamic characteristics of the simulated resonator slow-wave structure. Specification of discrete interaction processes in traveling-wave tubes, and electrodynamic processes in the SWS is ensured by the correct selection of the transmission matrix coefficients.
In this paper the slow-wave structures and their models, which are used for development of the millimeter range devices, are considered. The travelling-wave tubes (TWTs) of the millimeter range use rectangular and axially-symmetric resonator slow-wave structures. Analysis of these slow-wave structures was performed using HFSS program for 3D-modeling . Dispersion characteristics were calculated by program outlined in the paper . These characteristics are used to build the model of the slow-wave structure’s cell. The peculiarities of the interaction between the electrons and the field in the TWT with resonator slow-wave structures are determined by the nature of the field distribution in such structure. The discrete approach is the most common for solving problems of this type . The difference form of the electrodynamic excitation theory applied to the description of the discrete interaction is justifying the use of a mathematical model.
For a description of the TWT with the discrete interaction, in which the phase of the field in the interaction gaps in the longitudinal remains constant, the use of the difference equation is electrodynamically reasonable.
The more precisely defined the coefficients of the finite difference equations, the more accurate the mathematical model of the discrete interaction becomes. These coefficients have a certain electrodynamic meaning and are defined via coefficients of the quadripole transmission matrix derived from the sextopole if there is no the exciting current. The accuracy of the restoration of the electrodynamic characteristics of the modeled resonator slow-wave structures is determined by the coefficients of the quadripole obtained. Therefore, the correct selection of these coefficients provides a correct description of the discrete processes of interaction in travelling-wave tubes as well as the electrodynamic processes in the slow-wave structures.
The complexity of counteracting cyber-attacks is due primarily to their high technology. Therefore, only the use of intelligent means and systems of counteraction can be a real protection against malicious intrusion. It can be considered that the life cycle of a cyber-attack consists of its preparation by an attacker and its implementation by an attacker. Given the complexity and variety of information and communication technology operations, protocols, of particular interest is the practical task of determining the identifying features or digital traces of the initiators of a cyberattack-terminal endings (gadgets, devices) and their owners with personal individual user features at the stage of preparation or design of a cyber-attack. In this regard, the formal formulation of the scientific problem of developing new approaches to the synthesis of models and methods of collection, processing and structuring of information necessary for the implementation of the technology of identification of physical devices and their users based on the analysis of traces left by them in the information space is relevant. The article offers a formal statement of the scientific problem and new approaches to the synthesis of models and methods of collection, processing and structuring of information necessary for the implementation of the technology of identification of physical devices and their users based on the analysis of traces left by them in the information space.
Theoretical and experimental results of heat curing of concrete using ultra-high frequency electromagnetic energy as a source of heat are presented. The advantages of microwave method of heat curing of concrete are compared with traditional methods. The results of studies on the accelerated curing of concrete slabs in a beam-type microwave setup are presented.
A beam-type microwave setupwas developed to accelerate the curing the concrete slab, with the size of 200 mm x 2000 mm x 3000 mm, weight 2760 kg at the temperature of +70°C and the electromagnetic field frequency oscillations of 2450 MHz, and power output of 38.4 kW. A setup allows to reduce the energy consumption for the technological process of the heat treatment of concrete products, increase productivity and improve working conditions for the staff. Basic expressions for the temperature distribution calculation along the thickness and the surface ofconcrete slabs are presented. The time of heating a slabto the temperature of +70°C, 2760 kg of weight, was 50 minutes. The deviation from the nominal value of the temperature of the concrete slab across the area doesn't exceed 2°C, and across the thickness of the plate does not exceed 5°C. As a result, the research shows the prospects of using microwave radiation for the production processes associated with accelerated hardening of the concrete. Currently work is underway to improve the strength characteristics of concrete due to uniform heating of the concrete, which contributes to the absence of internal stresses and other defects in the structure. The results of accelerating curing of the concrete slabs with the use of microwave radiation as a source of heat were obtained, that allows to refuse the use of expensive foreign additives for accelerated hardening of concrete, which lead to degradation of strength characteristics due to the increase of acidity.
On the basis of logical-probabilistic approach developed logical-probabilistic models of information security assessment of the object of attack. The models are based on the current level of knowledge to counter attacks and allow the information to take into account technological features, especially the functioning of the object of attack, regulations and any requirements. The properties of the obtained models in the grades of the new security functions. Improved reachability condition acceptable security level of the object of attack. formulates logic and probabilistic risk assessment criteria of information security object of attack. Proposed procedure for assessing price risks. Showing the direction of automation assess the level of risk on the basis of intelligent fuzzy logic and neural networks for web development environment for cloud computing in cluster Hadoop. Formulated the main system requirements for intelligent automated system monitoring daemon TaskTraker_состояние and others in cluster Hadoop.
The highest rates of development of infocommunication technologies, covering various subject areas relevant to humanity, raise new requirements for ensuring information security of risk objects. Cyber-attacks, as complex processes, are based on the latest infocommunication technologies, which causes the development of intellectual approaches to counteract them. To apply methods of artificial intelligence to counter information attacks, an approach is used based on the security functions of the risk object, which allows developing methodological recommendations focused on the potential of cloud computing. The article develops a method for synthesizing the security functions of the risk object from a cyber- attack based on calculus of graphs.
Theoretical results of curing antennas made of composite materials using electromagnetic field of super high frequencies as a source of heat energy are presented. The advantages of microwave heat treatment of the antenna made of carbon fiber with epoxy binder in comparison with traditional methods are presented. Results of theoretical studies on the accelerated curing of antennas made of composite materials in microwave radiation type installation in the periodic mode are presented.
A radial type setup for the polymerization of antennas made of composite materials with a diameter of 1200mm, a thickness of 3mm at a temperature of +180°with the electromagnetic field frequency oscillations of 2450MHz and a power output of 4.8kW was developed. A set allows to reduce the energy consumption for the technological process of accelerated curing of an antenna made of composite material, increase productivity and improve working conditions of staff.
The essential expressions and calculation results of the temperature distribution along the thickness of the antenna made of composite material are presented. The heating duration of the antenna from the temperature of +20°C to a temperature of +200°C, weight 5,4kg, is 160 seconds. The temperature deviation from the nominal value of the temperature on the surface of the antenna is absent, and through the thickness of the antenna does not exceed 2°C.
As a result, the research shows the prospects of using microwave radiation for the production processes associated with accelerated curing of parabolic antennas made of composite materials. Currently work is underway to study the strength characteristics of polymer antennas, assuming that the uniform heating of the antenna leads to the absence of internal stresses and other defects of the material structure of the antenna.
In this paper the calculation of the dispersion characteristics of the slow-wave structures suitable for use in the terahertz range devices is conducted. The slow-wave structuress of the "winding waveguide"-, "serpentine"- and "counter-pins"-type can be considered as such. Analysis of the dispersion characteristics was carried out using waveguide-resonator model, which is built for slow-wave structures of the "winding waveguide"-type taking into account the channel for the electron beam. The waveguide-resonator model is composed of quadripoles describing the waveguide segments. This model is most accurately reflects the field structure in the "winding waveguide". The second approach is used to analyze the slowwave structures of "serpentine" and "counter-pins"-type. Analysis of the slow-wave structures was performed using the 3D-modelin in program HFSS . The dispersion characteristics were calculated by the program outlined in the work . These characteristics are used to build the model of the slow-wave structure, which is represented in this case by the chain of the octopoles of quadripoles. The discrete approach is the most common for the solution of this problems. Justification of the application of a mathematical model for the description of the discrete interaction follows from the difference form of electrodynamic excitation theory . Waveguide-resonator model is also used in the construction of a model of TWT section with the discrete interaction. High demands are made to the coefficients of the finite-difference equation, because the more accurately they are given, the more adequate the mathematical model of the discrete interaction in a relation to the physical laws. Those coefficients have a definite electrodynamic meaning and are defined via coefficients of the quadripole transmission matrix derived from the sextopole in the absence of the exciting current. This quadripole, in turn, is a mathematical model of the cell of the resonator slow-wave structure.
The suppression of the nonlinear distortions in amplifier using the effect of the envelope signal of the amplified HF oscillations on the amplifier parameters is analyzed. A slow (on the time scale of the HF oscillations) variation in the parameters gives rise to additional frequency components of oscillations that compensate for the nonlinear distortions of the original signal. Describes the various options to include compensating signal. Describes the criteria for the use of amplifiers with a traveling wave tube and solid state amplifiers. Several variants to employ the compensating signal using the feedback circuits in the transistor amplifiers and variations in the electron beam current in TWT (modulation beam current) in the absence of such circuits are considered. The suppression of the nonlinear intermodulation distortions (IMDs) of the test two frequency signal is studied for the above variants and the suppression of the third order IMD to 19 dB corresponds to the known experimental data on the microwave transistor amplifier feedback on the frequency of the envelope. Separately, it was the influence on the level of performance fazoamplitudnoy distortion at the output of the microwave amplifier with a traveling wave tube.
Now the electronic devices based on slow wave systems and electromagnetic waves excited in them were widely adopted in microwave electronics. They are also successfully applied at creation new elements of radio-frequency and microwave paths, instrumentations and devices, materials electromagnetic heating and etc. One of the perspective directions of slow wave systems usage is possibility of their implementation in biology and medicine as antennas and radiators for radio-frequency and microwave physical therapy, a radio-thermy and a tomography, sensitive elements for medical diagnostics, devices for sterilization and heat treatment. Advantages of usage slow wave systems in biology and medicine are based on electrodynamic and design features of structures which follow from distribution of an electromagnetic field near their surfaces. In this we are looking for features of usage slow wave systems in relation to area with high value of dielectric permeability, in particular to biofabrics, and also the problems connected with creation of electrodes for intracavitary microwave physical therapy on slow wave systems with primary concentration of electric field in biofabrics, adjacent to electrode surface. In this work the results of modeling microwave radiator on the basis of a ribbed coaxial line were received on Ansoft HFSS v.12 and CST Microwave Studio 2011 software. The theoretical ratios whice were received as a result of the electrodynamic analysis allow to calculate change of phase speed of slowed-down electromagnetic wave in the coaxial line with ridge conductors and are in good compliance with results of physical experiment. Application of such structure represents practical interest as allows to reduce its longitudinal geometrical sizes with preservation of electric wavelength. Except urological procedures of transurethral microwave thermotherapy, the offered electrode on the basis of a ribbed line can be used also as a radiation source for the microwave tomograph at research of large blood vessels or a gullet. Besides, its application as the tiny reception antenna at radiometry and a termografiya is possible.
In article methods of increase of accuracy of measure calculations of non-failure operation and durability of microwave devices which are widely applied both in household appliances, and in modern devices and systems of space engineering are considered. It is obvious that operability of such microwave devices is extremely important as their refusal conducts to failure of the radioelectronic equipment (REA) as a whole. Feature of microwave devices is that a large number of constructive (mechanical) components is their part. However, in case of an assessment of indicators of reliability of REA consider only electronic component base, accepting all constructive (mechanical) components highly reliable, almost not influencing sizes of indicators of nonfailure operation, durability and a keeping. In confutation of it in article the example of measure calculation of reliability of the microwave switchboard is given and need of accounting of mechanical components and temporary working schedules is proved.
Electronic equipment of spacecraft is exposed to ionizing radiation of outer space, which is another reason for failure. Currently accepted to evaluate separately the reliability of electronic equipment and its radiation resistance, despite the fact that these phenomena are interrelated. The aim of the article is to estimate effects of ionizing radiation on the reliability of microwave devices, namely, the probability of failure-free operation of a microwave amplifier.
The probability of device failure model Q(t) for active lifetime is constructed as a product of the probabilities of failure Q1(t) - the probability of device failure due to set the total ionizing dose, Q2(t) - probability of failure of the device in the absence of exposure to ionizing radiation, Q3(t) - the probability of a single effect event. Probabilities Q2(t) and Q3(t) are valued at current normative documents. Probability Q1(t) is calculated based on probabilistic and physical models.
Research shows that, despite the high radiation resistance of microwave devices used in electronic equipment of spacecraft, when the long lifetime is required the low intensity radiation will have a tangible impact on the probability of failure. And that should be considered when designing equipment.
This paper considers the model of amplification of electromagnetic millimeter waves by non-relativistic electron beams in one-dimensional periodic electrodynamic systems. As slow-wave structures systems such as "winding waveguide" and "counter-pins"-type suitable for use in the millimeter range are investigated. The main directions of research are: – development of a traveling-wave tube model on the basis of the differential theory of excitation of electrodynamic systems by currents; –modeling and calculation for simplified waveguide-resonator model of electrodynamic properties of slow-wave structures such as "winding waveguide" in the millimeter range; – representation of a waveguide-resonator model of "winding waveguide"-type slow-wave structure, composed of segments of rectangular and U-shaped waveguide; – obtaining by a waveguide-resonator model coefficients of the transmission matrix, which allows to analyze the dispersion and coupling impedance in the band of amplified frequencies; – investigation of "winding waveguide"-type slow-wave structure taking into account the geometric phase rotation field in neighboring gaps by linear waveguide-resonator model represented by a chain of quadripoles by means of opposite switching of the induced current in the neighboring interaction gaps and also the first spatial harmonic used in traveling-wave tubes for the calculation of the dispersion; – calculation of a number of options that characterize the basic laws of changes in the properties of "winding waveguide"-type slow-wave structure; – modeling the properties of slow-wave structures such as "winding waveguide" using 3D-codes; – application of the results obtained using the 3D-codes as the numerical experiment to adjust waveguide-resonator model; – model building pin-type slow-wave structures using waveguide-resonator model, adjustable by experimental reference points. The paper shows that for modeling slow-wave structures such as "winding waveguide" and "counter-pins" waveguide-resonator model adjustable to the experimentally obtained reference points can be used. As the reference points can also be used the values of deceleration and the coupling impedance obtained by numerical experiment using HFSS. Waveguide resonator models constructed in such way are sufficiently accurate and simple. This paper shows that these models can be successfully used for the calculation of traveling-wave tubes operating in the millimeter range.