A formula φ is called n-provable in a formal arithmetical theory S if φ is provable in S together with all true arithmetical Πn-sentences taken as additional axioms. While in general the set of all n-provable formulas, for a fixed n>0 , is not recursively enumerable, the set of formulas φ whose n-provability is provable in a given r.e. metatheory T is r.e. This set is deductively closed and will be, in general, an extension of S. We prove that these theories can be naturally axiomatized in terms of progressions of iterated local reflection principles. In particular, the set of provably 1-provable sentences of Peano arithmetic PA can be axiomatized by εo times iterated local reflection schema over PA . Our characterizations yield additional information on the proof-theoretic strength of these theories (w.r.t. various measures of it) and on their axiomatizability. We also study the question of speed-up of proofs and show that in some cases a proof of n-provability of a sentence can be much shorter than its proof from iterated reflection principles.
We study the relative complexity of equivalence relations and preorders from computability theory and complexity theory. Given binary relations R, S, a componentwise reducibility is defined by
R ≤ S ⇔ ∃f ∀x, y [x R y ↔ f (x) S f (y)].
Here, f is taken from a suitable class of effective functions. For us the relations will be on natural numbers, and f must be computable. We show that there is a -complete equivalence relation, but no -complete for k ≥ 2. We show that preorders arising naturally in the above-mentioned areas are -complete. This includes polynomial time m-reducibility on exponential time sets, which is , almost inclusion on r.e. sets, which is , and Turing reducibility on r.e. sets, which is .
The objective of this article is to characterise elimination of finite generalised imaginaries (as defined by Hrushovski) in terms of group cohomology. As an application, I consider series of Zariski geometries constructed by Hrushovski and Zilber, and indicate how their non-definability in algebraically closed fields and other theories is connected to eliminability of certain generalised imaginaries.