Speaking about the XX century after the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949 the leading trade partner of the country was Soviet Union and after the crisis in Chinese-Soviet relations in the 1960s there has been a shift towards the trade within Asian re- gion, which once again shows that China has always been an active player on the international market because of its productions' power. The way China interacts with other regions and par- ticular countries is an exciting topic for international relations scientists because it reflects the state of affairs of China at every step of its development. For more than 50 years, the Rus- sian metallurgical industry has been building its relationships with China as one of the leading partners. So because Russia has passed through a stage of stagnation after the collapse of the USSR and the period of finding a new balance due to reduced domestic Russian demand, it was crucial to continue developing relations with the closest neighbors and try to catch up. However, why is international trade developing so fast? This happened as a result of the growing purchasing power of the Chinese population; domestic manufacturers are increasing their operations within the domestic market, which is making the country known for being the manufacturer of the world, in its factory. Ferrous metallurgy is used in engineering, construction, and automo- tive, that is, in critical sectors of the economy. Therefore, scientists and analysts pay great atten- tion to the steel industry and its research. In order to understand the modern state of affairs in the iron and steel industry in China, authors provide an overview of the industry itself using various sources of data, such as historical review and collection of quantitative data, estimate its development to understand its weak and sharp points for the business development.
The article discusses the effects of concentration of students in the system of higher education in the regions of Russia and methodological approaches to their assessment. The issues of accessibility and inequality in higher education are increasingly being put on the agenda by a number of researchers. Historically, universities are located in large cities, new universities also follow this example, thereby enhancing the effect of concentration. The policy of the Ministry of Education and Science and Federal service for supervision in education and science, aimed at combating low-quality programs and universities, has led to an increase in the concentration of universities in major cities. This fact is confirmed by the calculated Theil and Herfindahl — Hirschman indices and the coefficient of variation. Thus, we can talk about the formation of university oases and deserts. According to our research, more than half of the territory of the Russian Federation constitutes an educational (university) desert
One of the most important and relevant business problems is the search for the optimal advertising budget and its distribution on advertising tools. This study focuses on the analysis of advertising budgets and its structure in the Russian market. In paper compares various types of advertisers, and provides recommendations for the application of advertising tools in Russia. The analysis was conducted based on the data of 500 companies working and advertising their products on the Russian market. The main research methods included a compare of averages and a correlation analysis. The author found significant differences in the application of promotional tools among advertisers from different types of business and sectors of the economy. It was found that the producers of goods and services greater use of television advertising than other advertising tools, but retailers use of outdoor, radio and online advertising to promote their products. Companies that sell fast moving consumer goods mainly used the television advertising. Firms selling consumer durables, instead of television ads use outdoor, internet and radio advertising. Sellers of premium and luxury goods advertise only in press, while companies from the service sector are actively using radio, outdoor and online advertising. The results of the study confirmed the findings of foreign researchers about the significant impact of type and sector of business on the allocation of advertising budget.
In the middle of 1990th there was no doubt about the European choice for Russia. Twenty years later the situation changed due to economic problems of the EU and new Russian approaches for selecting strategic partners. Within these approaches certain Eurasian tendency is becoming more and more visible. The author believe that modern Russia, being an Euro-Pacific state, is to cooperate both in the West and in the East. Nevertheless, taking into consideration certain historical and cultural traditions, character of existing economic ties and strong imperative for modernization of Russian economy the author privileges the EU like the most intelligible and close partner.
Housing construction in the Moscow agglomeration is closely linked with the migration of the population to the capital region. The acquisition of real estate by nonresident buyers in the primary market of the Moscow capital region (MСR) in the amount of 2.5 mln m2 provides housing for about 100 000 migrants per year, or about 40 % of the net migration inflow. Buyers from other regions account for 17 % of transactions in Moscow and 23 % in Moscow Oblast. The activity of buyers in the real estate market of the MCR has a spatial differentiation by the Russian regions, which is determined by the factors of natural resource rents, agglomeration effect, the status rents in the large cities, the distance from the MCR. Regional identity of buyers was determined by the addresses of their initial registration. Factor of natural resource rents is evident in the high share (6.4 %) of housing buyers in Moscow from Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs that is almost four times higher than their share in the population. The factor of distance leads to exceeding 2.1 times the share of housing buyers in Moscow from the neighboring regions of the first order over their shares in the population. The greatest activity in the housing market of Moscow is characteristic for residents of cities with the 250 000—500 000 population, of Moscow Oblast — with the 100 000—250 000 population. The share of buyers from the million-plus cities (17.7 %) is slightly greater than their share in the population. Small towns and rural areas have weak buying activity in the housing market. Thus, the development of alternative to Moscow centers of attraction at the national level is associated with a change in migration incentives for residents of cities with 100 000—500 000 population.