The author gives a new interpretation of the words "dan' mira del'a" ("a tribute for the peace's sake") which the early Rus' chronicles use when describing the establishment of the Rurikids' power in Kiev. The episode is essential to the history of Early Rus'. The words refer to the relationship of Novgorod and Kiev.
The author suggests that there were two notions of Rus' in the "Initial Compilation" of the 1090s (a stage of "The Primary Chronicle) - an ethnic one and a more complicated political and confessional.
The article analyzes the examples of spatial, personal and discourse deixis in the chronicle episodes presenting different types of the Cuman-Russian contacts. The paper characterizes the main functions of deixis in these passages and considers peculiarities of usage of the deictic models in the descriptions of the Cuman-Russian conflicts and alliances. The study specifically focuses on the analysis of the factual and literary aspects in usage of the deictic elements.
In the Kormchaya by Vassian, there is an entry on the qualities of an ideal ruler, with the quote from Iliad (II.480–484) and its explanations, which were previously believed to be a translation from some hitherto unidentified Greek source. The author identifies this source as the final part of the Second discourse “De regno” by Dion Chrysostom. In all probability, the text was translated by Maxim the Greek who learned about this text in Italy. By what route the original text (a unique specimen of Old Greek rhetoric) reached Moscow is open to discussion
The combination of the names «Alexander and Isakios» in the final clause of the Preface to the Younger Recension of the First Novgorod Chronicle (N1) is explained as indirectly referring to the names of two prominent Novgorodians of late 14th – early 15th centuries – posadnik Alexander the Caeser and boyar Isak Okinfov. Genealogical ambitions of the competing boyar clans is regarded as a factor that caused the inclusion into the Novgorod Episcopal Chronicle of the angiographic tales of St. Alexander Nevsky and Mikhail Chernigovskij, as well as of the account of the Kulikovo battle. The compiling of the protograph of N1 is shown to have preceded that of the Novgorod-Sophia Compilation (protograph of the Sophia 1 and Novgorod 4 chronicles) and is presumably dated to the short period of Novgorod’s loyalty to Moscow in 1397 which also saw the culmination of the careers of Alexander the Caeser and Isak Okinfov.
This is the publication of several Early Old Russian graffiti-inscriptions from the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod with paleographic, linguistic and historical commentary. It includes the revised text of a 13-lines-long prayer (graffito № 206); an inscription mentioning the Turkic name Sanbdusb; a new Glagolitic graffito from the Martirievskaia Porch; two inscriptions by church assistants mentioning their Slavic non-Christian names; a graffito dated 6614 (AD 1106/1107).
The article demonstrates that the initial words of the German ambassadors’ speech to Vladimir Svyatoslavich in the 6494 entry of the Povest’ vremennykh let represent a diplomatic formula also reflected by the 6733 (1225) entry of the First Novgorod Chronicle. The formula in question declares freedom of ambassadors’ and merchants’ traveling through the lands of contracting states. Accordingly, the ambassadors’ words contain a proposal to Vladimir to supplement the mutual openness for economic and political contacts already existing between the two countries by their confessional community.
The article explores the annalistic entry under 1093, which narrated of the attack of the Polovtsy to the Kiev principality. At this moment Rus' set up against the Polovtsy together with another nomad people - Torks. According to Shahmatov, this enty was compiled by the author of the “Initial Chronicle” (mid-1090s) who interpreted the Rus’ identity in the original political and religious context (imperial and apocalyptic). Based on the information about Rus’,Torks and the other nomads in the 12th century, the author demonstrates the different senses of the Rus’ identity which does not agree with the theoretical model of the “Old Russian nationality”.
This article deals with the problem of the appearance of the gloss and emendation sturlab placed for the old word kumir ‘an idol’ (resp. Greek eidōlon and Hebrew tərāfîm), Gen 31: 19, 34, and 35 in eight copies of the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch which was edited – as all scholars have believed till now – according to the Masoretic text and some other Jewish sources (targumim, midrashim, etc.). The word sturlab turned out to be borrowed from the Karaim (Old Western Kipchak) translation of the Pentateuch where this word was used as an exegetical counterpart of Hebrew tərāfîm and originated from the Arabic word ’aṣṭurlāb ‘an astrolabe’. The first exegete who coined this word into the Arabic translation of the Torah was Yefet ben ‘Eli ha-Levi, the eminent Karaite commentator on the Bible from the 10th century. Then, this word in forms ṣurlab and ’ûṣṭûrlāb was transmitted to the Judaic-Persian Biblical translations. In the late 14th century, some community of the Persian Karaites left from the Northern Iran to the Golden Horde and switched to Old Western Kipchak. In the second half of the 15th century, the Karaim translation of the Torah did exist in Eastern Europe, and at the same time there was intensive Jewish-Christian collaboration in Kiev being a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Thus, the cryptic Slavonic gloss sturlab corresponds to the Karaim forms istorlab/istorlap (Łuck and Crimean), isṭôrlap/ēstôrlap (Constantinople), sturlap (Halicz), and especially sturlab (Troki); this fact – along with many others – indicate that the Slavonic-Russian Pentateuch was edited not according to the Masoretic Text directly, but with the obvious intermediary translation of the Masoretic text into Karaim.