Within the framework of the overwhelming majority of modern theories, the state is considered as a specialized and centralized institution for governing a society, to what its right to exercise coercive authority – legitimized violence is often added as the state’s critical characteristic feature. Contrariwise, my approach stems from the presumption that the state should be perceived not as a specific set of political institutions only but, first and foremost, as a type of society to which this set of institutions is adequate. Following this approach leads to the necessity of paying special attention to coming to the fore of the non-kin, territorial relations in state society – the point often evicted from many contemporary definitions of the state due to the wide-spread vision of it as merely a specific form of political organization. I also argue that political centralization cannot be regarded as a feature specific for the state, as it is applicable to many non-state forms of societies. In the meantime, the feature typical for the state only, is specialization resulting in administrators’ professionalization, that is, in the formation of bureaucracy, related directly to the non-kin social ties coming into prominence. As for the right to coerce, it should not be made the central point of the state concept because it is a dependent variable itself: the specificity of monopoly of the legitimate violence in state society is precisely that it is exercised through and by bureaucrats who operate within bureaucratic institutions.
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of production principles and produc-tion revolutions, we reveal the interrelation between K-waves and major technological breakthroughs in history and make forecasts about features of the sixth Kondratieff wave in the light of the Cybernetic Revolution that, from our point of view, started in the 1950s. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s will merge with the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution (which we call a phase of self-regulating systems). This period will be characterized by the breakthrough in medical technologies which will be capable to combine many other technologies into a single complex of MBNRIC-technologies (med-bio-nano-robo-info-cognitive technologies). The article offers some forecasts concerning the development of these technologies.
Psycho-semantic approach is in demand as we try to reveal collective representations stressing the basic attitudes and stereotypes that are poorly reflected upon or hidden because of social undesirability and therefore difficult to diagnose. Attitudes to other countries are among this kind of examples. The article deals with a number of images of countries which are well known by student audience in South Korea. Original authors’ technique “The image of a country” was used to obtain empirical data. 107 respondents (male and female) took part in the survey. The study included the analysis and interpretation of primary answers to the items of the questionnaire, confirmation of the universal categories of the country images perception and determination of average scores for all countries from the questionnaire for all categories, reconstruction of integral rating of the positive attitudes toward the countries. Methods of multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis) were used for data analysis.