Area branding is singled out as a separate discipline in the educational programs of many Russian regional and Federal universities, but methodical recommendations on organization of the educational process, in particular the introduction of research and project work are not sufficiently developed. The article describes the successful experience of introducing project work as an important part of the discipline of «Area Branding», for example, the eponymous course which is part of the Master’s programme at national research university «Higher School of Economics».
The article provides a thematic plan of the discipline, consisting of lectures and seminars. The lecture part of the course includes a review of the existing models, methods, and experience of various projects in the field of territorial branding and marketing, based on the screening and subsequent discussion of visual and multimedia material. Within the framework of the seminars project research work is conducted: it is based on building a cloud of associations of the territory; the organization, methodology, tools of creation of that cloud are described in the article. The sequence of lectures and the corresponding project work are associated with the methodology and sequence of actions in the real process of development of an area brand.
The presented approach solves the problem of introducing elements of practical work; it is a necessary tool for training specialists in the field of branding, and has practical significance for the Russian market of intellectual services in general. The research results can be used by trainees and project participants for continuing work in the field of area branding, marketing, design, cultural research, as well as a starting point for further sociological research.
The article deals with the cultural and philosophical analysis of the local culture of Alsace. The author examines the concept of local culture from the perspective of the theory of civilization and defines the culture Alsace as a system of values of a historically specific community of people that exists within some boundaries. The researcher highlights the specific features of the local culture of borderline synthetic type.
In the liberal tradition legitimacy (legal authority) is usually explained as an outcome of people’s free and rational choice. However, our analysis allows us to conclude that quite often submission to political authority is based on particular forms of force and/or coercion. The role of coercion (threat of force) in the “force-coercion“ continuum and hidden forms of power bases on “the rule of anticipated reactions” is increasing. This limits the subject’s choice thereby decreasing the likelihood of alternative forms of social organization (regime) and enforcing acceptance of the existing order through the increasing of costs and risks in case of “wrong” choice. Therefore, political authority is accepted not (so much) as the outcome of free and rational choice, but as a result of the absence of real alternatives. Thus, the process of legitimization of power (regime) in any society is extremely complex; in fact, there are quite different combinations and configurations of 'legitimacies', reflecting a wide spectrum of relations in modern society.
The article is devoted to the critical analysis of the problem of eliminating humans from the process of communication due to the occurrence of an irresistible mediator. The case in point is the implementation and operation of learning management systems (LMS). In the information society, ‘inhuman’ technology acts as a mediator, completely abandoning the subjectivity, variability and unpredictability that arise in interpersonal communication, in favor of full predictability and transparency: the system restricts and defines professional and human relations, with mediation becoming a barrier for all subjects and social action.
With regard to the management of educational process, we examine this problem in the context of alienation of the individual in industrial relations, which has led to a qualitative change in the functions of communicative intermediaries on the level of social institutions. The article also brings up the issue of building an automated, ultrarationalized and dehumanized type of social relations in the course of shaping the modern means of communication, management and control.
The elimination of social norms and established conventions at various levels, which occurs with the development of new technologies, leads to the consistent dismantling of traditional society. While communication as a mediator arises between the subjects with different social status (teacherstudent), the process does not cause concern, but this principle tends to expand over all social objects, which may ultimately lead to a new type of power.
An important component of these surveys is the assessment of competencies, i.e. the students’ ability to apply their knowledge and skills in non-standard situations, including those new to them professionally and found in everyday life, as well as the assessment of factors which contribute to the competency level. The article describes the methodology of the projects, the materials used for testing, the structure of the sample and whether a particular project has been implemented in the Russian Federation.
The outcomes of the review allowed us to conclude that for Russia, participating in large-scale international research educational surveys is a must. Among reasons for participation are the inclusion of Russian data into international databases and an opportunity for comparative studies and further analysis. These activities will help understand the strengths and weaknesses of the education system in Russia, assess its opportunities and threats, and apply the best international practices and experience in the modernization of the education sector. By learning from the outcomes of the above-mentioned surveys, Russia will be able to act more effectively in developing and using the relevant
competencies, involving people of all ages in education, popularizing lifelong learning to achieve the supply and demand equilibrium in the quality and quantity of various types of professionalized labour force.
The article discusses one of the latest attempts of "rewriting" of postmodernism, known as "cosmodernism», that was undertaken by American philosopher Christian Moraru. The authors reconstruct the discussion on the necessity to build a new philosophical project to replace Fredric Jameson’s postmodernism, on which was based Moraru’s philosophical work. The article offers a historical-philosophical reconstruction of the theory of cosmodernism in its relation to disputes around postpostmodernism in the beginning of the XXI century, and also clarifies the relationship between the concepts of "cosmodernism" and "planetarism", which are the historical names of one project. Critical review of the concept of cosmodernism/planetarism describes the methodology of Moraru, that consists mainly of the analysis of literary works from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day, which demonstrate, according to the philosopher, the most representative features of modernity. The analysis of the theory and its comparison with competing socio-philosophical projects, such as digitalism and metamodernism, reveals the most interesting for the actual social philosophy side of cosmodernism: an indication of the blurring of subject-object boundaries in the present, the analysis of the phenomenon of netovisation of space, rethinking the nature of the completing globalization, the prospects of the worldling process, which would end in the cultural concept of the planet. The weak points of Moraru's philosophical work is the concentration exclusively on avant-garde literature, which limits the author's ability to work with the empirical material of modernity and weakens the position of his theory in comparison with other projects. The main subject of Moraru's research, - literature -, implicitly filled with ethical pathos, introduces an element of utopian duty into the concept of cosmodernism and removes from the philosopher's sphere of attention other important phenomena of modern culture, which makes Christian Moraru's project even less suitable for the analysis of modernity than postmodernism.
The subject of the article is a fragment of Lais " Chevrefoil" by Marie de France, which describes how the meeting of Tristan and Isolde was prepared. For more than a century this fragment remained a topic of lively debate. First, Mary told us that Tristan broke a branch of hazel, cut it with a knife and carves his name into it. However, the later text is about is the whole story of Tristan disasters, comparison of enamored with woven hazel and honeysuckle, and even about the appeal of the knight to his beautiful lady. According to Marie de France all this information contained in a message on hazel stick, which Isolde founded. The described scene is very implausible and raises a number of issues. How is it possible that Tristan could cut a sixteen lines in a stick, how is it possible that that Isolde was able to read them, sitting on a horse, why Tristan was not afraid to leave such a frank letter on the road. We propose an interpretation of this fragment using a kind of abbreviations theory, which not only shed light on the lines of Marie de France about Tristan’s message, but also explains a number of references to the use of mysterious runes and ogams in Old English lyrics and Old Irish epic literature. At the end of the article we propose a new translation of "Chevrefoil", made by N.M. Dolgorukova and edited by V.G. Tikhomirov (1943-2011), the translator of "Beowulf" and "Elder Edda".
In the late 1920s — the early 1930s, Shakespeare studies in the Soviet Union were dominated by the method of ‘vulgar sociology’. This official methodology influenced every scholar of literature. One of the key figures in literary studies of the time was Vladimir M. Friche.
A change in attitudes to Shakespeare, caused by the general interest in the heritage of classical authors in the Soviet theater, did not occur until 1934.
The article focuses on the yet little researched interpretation of Shakespeare developed in the 1930s by Sigizmund D. Krzhizhanovsky, and his original position in history and cultural scholarship. In particular, we have for the first time analyzed the transcript of Krzhizhanovsky’s paper devoted to Shakespeare’s chronicles. This document is preserved in Fond No. 52, “Vserosskomdram” at the Department of Manuscripts, Institute of World Literature, Russian Academy of Sciences.
The concept of history which underpins Krzhizhanovsky’s interpretation of Shakespeare’s chron icles can be traced back to the problems of methodology of historical knowledge as advanced by German philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the original interpreters and followers of this approach in Russia were such historians as A. S. LappoDanilevsky, I. M. Grevs and N. P. Antsiferov.
According to Krzhizhanovsky, Shakespeare selected his historical material with an accuracy of a historian. By studying various Shakespearean characters, historical and fictional, Krzhizhanov sky reconstructs the internal structural features of Shakespeare’s chronicles as a textual poetics through analysis and correlation of historical facts and their interpretation both by Shakespeare’s contemporaries and in the author’s imagination. The latter transforms historical facts according to the dramatic canon and creates a fictional world for Shakespeare’s contemporary audience. Krzhizhanovsky argues that, not knowing their own future, spectators are pleased to view themselves as ‘the future’ for historical characters on stage, and to watch the drama of ‘the past’ proceed into the present.
The Problem of Sanctuaries of the Chora of Chersonesus Taurica
This article presents the first ever study of a network of ancient Greek sanctuaries situated on the coast of the Heracleian Peninsula (Crimea) and linked to the chora (i.e. the agricultural territory) of Chersonesus Taurica. The reconstruction of this system has never been a topic of archaeological and historiographic research. The source of information on these sanctuaries are the reports by Pallas and Dubois de Montpéreux. Pallas discovered two sanctuaries, one at Aya Burun Promontory (Russ. Мыс Айя Бурун) and the other at Lermontov Promontory (Russ. Мыс Лермонтова). Dubois de Montpéreux gave a description of the remains of other two sanctuaries and interpreted one of them (near Mramornaya Valley/Мраморная балка) as a sanctuary of the Tauri, the indigenous people of the Heracleian Peninsula, and the second, as an ancient Greek temple (near Streletskaya Bay/Стрелецкая бухта). To these sites we should add the temple of Parthenos on the Parthenion Promontory (the present-day Chersones Promontory/Мыс Херсонес) and the sanctuary of the same goddess in the city of Chersonesus; these two sanctuaries are mentioned in Strabo’s Geography. We have come to the conclusion that these sites made up a network of sanctuaries situated on promontories and, apart from their sacral function, were used as navigation signs. The formation of this system probably dates back to the period when Greeks were occupying the territory of the Heracleian Peninsula, i.e. from the end of the 5th and during the 4th century BC. The main problem associated with these sites is the absence of archaeological studies of those locations which were described by Pallas and Dubois de Montpéreux. Research would have clarified both the localisation and the purpose of the structures described by these authors. However, Pallas and Dubois de Montpéreux had studied the sites in question in the period when they were still intact, i.e. before the later destruction of the environs of Sevastopol. We should therefore pay attention to their reports as important sources for the study of the structure of the chora of Chersonesus.
The article applies the occulture theory by the British religion scientist C. Patridge to the realities of music culture. For this purpose, several forms of music occulture are defined; they exploit the sub/ jects of easternisation, nativism, and ecologism, as well as the types of musicians playing with its images: adept, commercial project, and bricoleur. An adept is a musician who represents a particular esoteric teaching; a commercial project is a musician or a group working in the genre or style that was aesthetically shaped by occulture, in this case their exploiting of occulture is of a purely commercial nature. A bricoleur is a musician who plays around with occulture themes, and puts their own creative vision in the first place, in other words, composes their piece of music with the occulture material at hand. This scheme is projected onto the modern Russian music culture, considering examples of all types of occulture influence in Russian music and demonstrates the heuristic nature of the occulture theory for its analysis. The adept type of musician is analysed drawing on the example of the Russian Rod/ novery movement, represented by groups like “Butterfly Temple”, “Svarga”, “Alkonost”, “Arkona”, and “Tverd”. This type also includes musicians who were strongly influenced by the Soviet esoteric underground (A. F. Sklyar, V. Shumov, S. Kuryokhin). The specifics of commercial projects is shown in the study by the groups “Aria”, “Knyazz” and festival culture. Bricoleurs’ music is analysed through B. Grebenshchikov, S. Kalugin, R. Anchevskaya and P. Korolenko. The author draws a conclusion that Russian musical culture largely follows the principles that were laid in the west and, similar to western culture, exploits occulture themes, but acquires its orig/ inal features in the music of bricoleurs.