Governments around the world place great hopes in innovation in their search for new sources of growth and for responses to grand challenges, such as climate change, new or re-emerging infectious diseases, accelerating urbanisation, ageing, food security, and availability of clean water. However they must devise their relevant support policies -- including through sponsored research within public research institutes -- taking into account that innovation processes are currently undergoing a major transformation. New innovation patterns include a broadening scope of relevant activities, a growing importance but changing nature of scientific roots of technological development, a stronger demand-pull, the emergence of new local and national STI powerhouses, and the rise of more open and globalised innovation networks. They translate into new opportunities but also constraints for policies to enhance the contribution of public research institutes to national innovation performance. The article derives the main policy implications regarding the desirable evolution of the mission, research focus, as well as the funding and steering of public research institutes, with a special reference to Korea.
This paper reviews the most central analytical and methodological issues that arise in developing national STI strategies. First, an outline of the relationship between national innovation systems and the strategic dimension is presented. The paper shows that science, technology and innovation strategy are often used in different forms and that there is no common understanding yet of the actual meaning and coverage of these strategies. The paper develops the terminology from a discussion of different approaches towards company innovation processes analyzing their evolution in different socioeconomic environments and the role and impact of science, technology and innovation policy on company innovation processes. Based on this conceptual understanding the paper defines national science, technology, innovation, and STI strategy and explains the basic terminology. From these definitions, the strategic dimension including the impact on the stakeholders is discussed. It is shown that a major success factor for STI strategy development is the involvement of stakeholders to vary and extend their use of their portfolio of instruments. Moreover it becomes evident that stakeholders follow their own interests which aren’t necessarily in the interest of the national STI strategies. The analysis shows advantages and disadvantages as well as potentials and limitations of different approaches to develop STI strategies in their ability to describe the reality of innovation processes and to allow conclusions about the relationship between innovation policy and the innovation processes implemented by companies. It is shown that knowledge of these limitations is an important factor to consider in designing consistent and coherent national STI policy which aims at supporting innovation eventually. Finally the paper concludes that the STI policy mix concept needs a more systemic development approach which is integrated in the national STI strategy development and implementation.
The paper discusses technology platforms as an instrument of science, technology and innovation policy in light of their use in industrial R&D. The authors assert that the technology platforms approach as a policy concept refects special organizational and institutional features learned from industrial technology platforms. The characteristics of industrial technology platforms are reviewed, and their impact on the organization of research, development and innovation activities in companies is explored. Second, the industrial technology platform is examined in the context of European Technology Platforms and the recent initiative for technology platforms in Russia. Finally, the technology platform concept implications for the STI policy context are discussed.