The article reports previously unreleased archival and memoir data on E.B.Chain and V. I. Zeifman roles in organization of penicillin industrial production in the USSR; ideological context of this historical episode is discussed.
Grigoriy Konson’s interview with the Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Alexei Khokhlov is devoted to tracing the modern trends of Russian science. One of the most significant is digital technologies entering into our life and their possible consequences. The second tendency is associated with the structure of life at the molecular level: what are the DNA replication principles, how RNA is reading information and transmitting it to ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. The third one is strengthening of the people’s social and informa-tional community. The activity of the Academy of Sciences is developing based on the noted trends. On the one hand, the Academy provides expertise of state projects submitted to it. On the other hand, the RAS voices its own point, i.e. generates ideas and communicates them to the gov-ernment, arguing in many respects with the initiatives offered by the Ministry of Science and other departments, trying to express the opinion of the entire scientific community under the authority of the most qualified scholars elected in the RAS. In fact, there is no issue, related to the scientific and technical sphere, which is resolved without the RAS, although there is always a certain rivalry between the RAS and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, instructed by the state to carry out legal regulation in the scientific field. Still, the RAS is the face of Russian science. Based on many factors, including public expertises and the Academy council expertises, the Russian Academy of Sciences has developed the Web of Science Citation Index Russian Shelf project. Having analyzed all 6,000 academic journals in the Russian Federation, the Russian Academy of Sciences identified 775 outlets that meet the major scientific journal criteria and contribute to the advancement of Russian researchers. About 350 journals are currently indexed by the Web of Science Core Collection. About the same number (some 400 periodicals) was selected for the Russian Science Citation Index.
The problem of an aesthetic ideal in the aspect of corporeality and corpulence is investigated in the history of art, fashion history, fiction, and now - the uncounted number of beauty-blogs, etc. The author tries to consider it in an applied aspect - female "plumpness" and "subtility" which were represented either as fine, or as ugly - in different eras and cultures. At the same time the author strived for objection the concept of the "economic reductionism" claiming (in general) that for the economically "safe" eras and the upper classes the refinement ideal is customary, whereas the feature of "unsuccessful" eras and lower classes the ideal of healthy "plumpness" is aimed for physical survival and preservation of descendents. The author by means of the text and illustrations addresses history of the world culture - since great antiquity (the neolitic culture) and up to nowadays and speaks about the autonomy of ideals of beauty. In the article it is shown that need not to mix a historical argument (physical condition of bodies) and aesthetic one (which was the representation of bodies when a certain semantic significance was attributed to them). The author agrees with E. Cassirer's opinion that culture is entirely identical to symbols; by means of symbols the realization of transformation of spirit in the planes of cultural being is possible. And one of the important components of this symbolization of the world is the gender symbolization in art.