The article is the first of its kind historiographical and theoretical review of the views of thinkers of the Middle Ages and modern history on the so-called "Hyperborean question", which are analyzed in a broad historical context with an emphasis on the political and ideological aspect of this issue.
The theme of Hyperborea, which was topical throughout most of the era of antiquity, towards the beginning of the Middle Ages almost completely left the fileld of both public consciousness and scientific thought, remaining only as a poetic metaphor that had radically changed it's meaning. Now this concept is associated with the threat from the north-east, coupled with deep contempt for the barbarians. From the 9th to the 16th century the epithet "Hyperboreans" referred mostly to the Russian people. A new discipline - Russian studies - developed in the context of the "hyperborean" issues. With the accumulation of geographical knowledge and the clarification of toponyms, the concept of "Hyperborea" had every chance to remain nothing more than a source of poetic allegories.
However, in the sixteenth century, with the beginning of the era of the formation of nation states, this topic acquired a new sound, becoming one of the instruments of political myth-making, primarily in the Northern European states, including Sweden which was seeking the opportunity to justify not only its exceptional role in world history, but also the claim to the leading position in Europe. The Norman hypothesis imposed on Russia by the West from the beginning of the 18th century, is directly connected with the Hyperborean question. Attempts by the Swedes to usurp the name Hyperborea caused an acute reaction in Russia. Russian writer V. Kopnist proposed an alternative theory, according to which the Hyperboreans were the ancestors of the Russian people, and it is Russia that should be considered the cradle of civilization.
The boundary of the 18th-19th centuries was marked by the skepticism of the European reading public about the attempts to find the direct descendants of the Hyperboreans among the existing peoples. The theme of Hyperborea has lost its relevance for almost a century, revived in the works of the fashionable esoteric thinkers on the one hand, and on the other hand - representatives of classical philology and historians of ancient philosophy, who broadened the range of scientific interests.
The article raises the question of the impact of non-Greek cultures and civilizations in the early Greek philosophers, especially the Egyptian, Iranian and Babylonian. The author argues that the interpretation in the broader context of the Indo-European tradition of fragments of early Greek thinkers is usually considered as a phenomenon-in-itself can give us additional possibilities of interpretation and allow to resound in a new way well-known concepts.
The article analizes for the first time in the Russian literature the phenomenon of plagiarism, generated by the heightened interest of the Greeks of the period of the archaic and early classics in matters of personal recognition and championship in all forms of creative activity. The groundlessness of the widespread notion that the Greeks were alien to the notion of plagiarism is being proved. A number of particular cases of non-attributable borrowing from ancient Greek philosophers and writers are analyzed, not all of which can be attributed to plagiarism in the modern sense (many of them are explained by the relations of apprenticeship, the role of tradition, the commonality of cultural possessions, etc.). The motives of mutual accusations in
"literary theft" by representatives of various philosophical schools are revealed. The key role of accusations of plagiarism against Greek thinkers in ideological warfare, led by Hellenistic Jewish and Christian apologists, is demonstrated.
The author is sure that if law norms of modern copyright existed in ancient Greece, simply no "Greek miracle" would happen, because culture can not develop without borrowing and without the intertextual dialogue.
The article discusses the phenomenon of reality shows that emerged as a specific TV format (1970s — present), has become an integral part of television broadcasting and in shaping modern society, «the reality effect». Despite the novelty of this format relative to traditional gaming forms of theatre and cinema, in fact, reality shows are not made revolutionary changes in television, particularly in comparison with the changes that have occurred in the Internet and new media. The reality show transformed into the formats of observation and representation of reality beyond television.
The purpose of the article is to debunk the myth of absolute freedom of speech and thought in Ancient Greece. The author proposes an original concept of the origin of censorship, which originally concerned exclusively the theoretical activity of philosophers.