Growing up, children acquire great opportunities for the independent assimilation of new spaces and for learning about their environment and landscape. The development of children’s independence and freedom from direct adult supervision, on the one hand, enables children to visit various places beyond adult control, and on the other, creates restrictions and limitations imposed on locations that are considered dangerous. This situation leads to the occurrence in children’s subculture of the phenomenon of hidden places and secret children’s worlds that are separate from those of adults. The forbidden attracts both because it is prohibited and because it offers many opportunities for the development of children’s fantasy worlds, games and cognitive activity. This article presents data on this phenomenon based on the study of two Bashkir villages. Entry by adult researchers into the children’s secret world was made possible by means of a camera —mediator. Four types of space, depending on the degree of openness and adult control, were examined: open space under adult control; open space out of adult control (aka “secret spaces”); space hidden from the sight of adults; space forbidden for both adults and children. Revealed were patterns of children’s assimilation of such spaces in correlation with their maturation process and with restrictions on the part of adults, as well as with the norms of Bashkir culture.
Since the colonial period North East India has been viewed as a frontier separated from the “mainland” in terms of culture, ethnicity, and mentality. One of the seven states, so called “seven sisters” located in the region, is Nagaland. Naga is the common name of the tribes Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lhota, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Yimchungr, Zeliang, Sumi, and Kuki inhabiting the state.
Present article is the result of the field work conducted in a tribal village of Nagaland in December 2012 – January 2013. Author sought to determine whether the social structure and the economic setup of the Ao Naga village changed somehow over the last 88 years since the first publication of the monograph “The Ao Nagas” by J. P. Mills.
The article argues that the social-psychological archetype – tribe – village – khel – patronimy (kiyong) – clan – family – has hardly changed. The tenure and utilization of land stays unalterable. Pursuant to Article 371А, Constitution of India (Special Provision with Respect to the State of Nagaland), customary law is applied within the territory of Ao Naga tribe and within the territory of Nagaland State as well. Mangmetong village has always been a small republic: the village council of elders legislates; executive practice and law enforcement is still the prerogative of the council of elders. Shifting cultivation (slash-and-burn), jhum, is the main agricultural system.
The article deals with a very recent phenomenon – the three communities of Orthodox Old Believers that appeared in the Republic of Uganda in the 1990s. This faith originated in Russia, but in Uganda all its adherents belong to the native ethnic groups and converted to Old Believers from other religions in adulthood. The general description of the Ugandan Old Believer communities is based on field evidence collected in 2017 by the expedition of the Institute for African Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences – 125 questionnaires, 34 structured interviews, hundreds of photo and video records.