When doubt arises in a decision-making situation, a polyphony of inner voices may emerge, each voice motivating the person towards a specific choice option, often even suggesting reasons in favour of this option. The paper presents two steps of a proposed method that facilitates finding an authentic position. During the first step, inner voices are verbalised, and specific nuances of their intonation are paid attention to. At the second step, the person is asked to feel and estimate how close each of these voices is to his or her own deeper Self. Examples of application of the method within counseling practice are presented.
In article organizational-methodical aspects of activity and results of the first year of work of Moscow phone of the emergency psychological help using methods and technicians of the existential analysis are considered.
When considering L. Feuerbachs thesis, that god is a projection of human potentiality, our spiritual reality could be seen as a trinity: the acting and deciding ego corresponds to the Son; the depth persons corresponds to the Father (including conscience, creative impulses, the ability to love, phenomenological perception, higher emotions); and the Spirit can be seen as the unifying force enabling Son and Father to communicate with one another in the human being. Trinity was interpreted differently in western and eastern Christianity. In eastern Christianity, solely God the Father is origin of the Holy Spirit. Western Christianity, by contrast, sees the origin of the Holy Spirit also in the Son of God. Characteristic features of Russian mentality can be derived from this, becoming apparent in passivity and submissiveness to authorities.
Im ersten Teil des Artikels werden die wichtigsten Abschnitte der Entwicklung der Vorstellung von der Person in der Geschichte der europäischen Kultur – die Antike, das Christentum, die Neue Zeit, die Philosophie des Personalismus, die philosophische Anthropologie von Max Scheler beschrieben. Vor diesem kulturhistorischen Hintergrund wird im zweiten Teil des Artikels der Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Idee der Person in der Existenzanalyse von Alfried Längle betrachtet.
Die Differenzierung der Erscheinungsformen der geistigen Dimension des Menschen zwischen dem Ich und der Person, die Systematisierung der Beschreibungen der Person als eines Phänomens des menschlichen Seins, die Vorstellungen von dem Dialog, als einem wesentlichen Merkmal der Person, und von dem inneren Dialog des Ichs und der Person bildeten die methodologische Grundlage für die anthropologisch begründete psychologische Theorie und für das System der Methoden der Beratung und der Psychotherapie. Es zeigt sich, dass die personalistischen Vorstellungen von A. Längle aufs engste mit der kulturhistorischen Tradition des Verständnisses das Wesens des Menschen in der europäischen Kultur verbunden sind und eine Konzeptualisierung der Idee der Person im psychologischen und psychotherapeutischen Diskurs darstellen.
This article presents the results of a phenomenological study of dependence in close interpersonal relationships between men and women. Interviews were conducted with participants, who experience dependence in their close interpersonal relationships. These interviews were analyzed according to A. Giorgi’s phenomenological approach. From the analysis, a structural model of relationship dependence was derived, separating the stable from the variable components of dependence. Special attention was given in this study to the vicious cycle of “closeness–estrangement” which has been found to be specific to dependent relationships. The findings reveal a distinction between interpersonal dependence based on the type of deficiency that is being compensated by the partner. The pattern of these deficiencies correspond to the content of the fundamental existential motivations, formulated by A. Laengle: lack of support, lack of feeling of life, lack of self-acceptance and self-esteem. A frustration of the meaning dimension was present in all cases of dependence.
We present a series of studies aimed at the development and the validation of a new Russian-language instrument measuring existential fulfilment based on the hierarchical structure of the 4 existential fundamental motivations developed by A. Längle. Based on phenomenological descriptions and focus groups, we created a 94-item set. The structural validation study used 2 online samples (N = 818 and N = 215). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, expert-rating procedure, and confirmatory factor analysis with cross-validation we arrived at a hierarchically structured set of 36 items grouped into 4 scales (forming a general index of existential fulfilment) and 12 subscales corresponding to theoretical prerequisites of fundamental motivations. The scales demonstrated acceptable reliability (α in the .79-.88 range, .93 for the general score). In 3 samples (N = 658, N = 215, N = 105) we sought evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of TEM against measures of well-being (emotional, social, and psychological well-being, subjective happiness, satisfaction with life), basic psychological need satisfaction, self-esteem, psychopathology (anxiety, depression, alienation), and the Big Five traits using correlation and regression analyses. Two other studies explored the associations of existential fulfilment with other demographic and psychological variables (gender, age, self-control, reflexive processes) in a large sample (N = 3766) and investigated TEM scores in individuals with binge eating disorder (N = 193). The findings show the convergent validity of existential fulfilment indicators against well-being measures based on different theoretical approaches, as well as discriminant and criterion validity of existential fundamental motivation scales. We also discuss the psychometric challenges associated with existential concepts and propose approaches to their solution.
The article is devoted to the study of the relationship between existential fulfilment as one of the indicators of psychological well-being, and religiosity among Russian citizens practicising Islam and Buddhism. We also compare existential fulfillment of Muslims and Buddhists and Russians from the general population. We understand existential fulfilment, based on A. Lӓngle’s existential analytical approach, as the personal realization of the four fundamental existential motivations (FMs). We first briefly consider how the main themes of the FMs are reflected in the world outlook and practice of both Islam and Buddhism. In an empirical study on a sample of Muslims (N = 181) and Buddhists (N = 131) we used the original Russian version of the Test of Existential Motivation and an “objective” indicator of religious involvement: a survey form for assessing religiosity level includes questions about the frequency of religious practices. A positive correlation was found between existential fulfilment and religiosity. Regression analysis showed that religiosity is a significant predictor of existential fulfilment, independent of the gender, age, place of residence of respondents and the method used for data collection. The level of realization of the 2nd FM, concerning emotionality and value of life, among Muslim participations, was significantly higher than among Buddhist participants. In the levels of realization of other existential fundamental motivations and in the general indicator of existential fulfilment, no significant differences were found between the representatives of two religious groups. Comparison of existential fulfilment indicators for Muslims and Buddhists with similar indicators for a neutral Russian sample from the general population demonstrated that the level of realization for all fundamental existential motivations was significantly higher for believers. Further studies are needed for testing our results in other countries and using representatives of other religions.
Results of empirical studies of alienation are described, based on cultural-historical and activity approach to meaning and to the existential-analytical model of dialogue with the world. Two versions of the (Russian) Subjective Alienation Questionnaire based on the Alienation test by Maddi et al. were validated on student and Internet samples (N = 901). In this test alienation showed negative correlations with meaning, hardiness, self-determination and other subjective and psychological well-being variables. Significant age- and profession-related differences in alienation were found and discussed. Future research directions of social and psychological aspects of alienation and existential analysis effects on alienation are proposed.
The aim of our study was to develop a new measure of existential fulfilment in interpersonal relationships, operationalizing Längle’s theory of the four existential fundamental motivations. Using expert procedures, we developed a pool of 80 items and investigated its structure in a Russian-speaking sample (N=634). We used exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to select 3 indicator items for each of the 3 prerequisites of each of the 4 fundamental existential motivations. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a hierarchical structure of the 36-item set with 12 first-order factors and 4 second-order factors. Each of the 12 subscales and the 4 scales demonstrated acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s alphas > 0.80). The scales of the questionnaire allowed to differentiate between relationships self-reported as “successful” and “unsuccessful”, and exhibited statistically significant correlations with two measures of general existential fulfilment, Existence Scale (Längle, Orgler, Kundi, 2000) and Test of Existential Motivations (Eckhardt, 2000). Path analysis (conducted using Mplus 7.11 software) indicated that fulfilment of the 3rd and the 4th fundamental motivations (Authenticity and Meaning, respectively) in relationships was the most essential to general existential fulfilment. We also investigated the differences in the experience of relationships across gender and relationship types (i.e., “free” relationship, unregistered marriage, official marriage). The results indicated that females tended to report more positive experiences of relationship. The difference in the relationship types reflecting the degree of personal commitment in a relationship was a stronger predictor of perceived fulfilment, compared to gender. We propose to use the Test of Existential Motivations in Interpersonal Relationships (TEMIR) as a new Russian-language research instrument and discuss potential future research avenues.
The study aimed to explore the predictors of existential fulfilment in close relationship, an operationalization of relationship quality based on Längle’s existential analytic approach, using a cross-sectional design. The participants were 309 adults who completed an online questionnaire. We used Test of Existential Motivations in Relationships, a 36-item instrument measuring the fulfilment of 4 fundamental motivations, together with measures of subjective well-being, positive self-attitude, alienation, and psychopathology, controlling for age, gender, and relationship length. Existential fulfilment in relationships showed theoretically predictable weak to moderate correlations with other study variables. Moderation analysis discovered several effects: 1) subjective happiness was more strongly associated with fulfilment in long-term relationships than in short-term ones, 2) psychopathology, self-understanding, and alienation in relationships were stronger predictors of fulfilment in relationships for older adults than for younger adults, 3) positive self-attitude was associated with fulfilment in relationships for males, but not for females. Self-attitude and alienation indicators remained significant predictors of existential fulfilment in relationships after psychopathology was controlled for. The findings are discussed in the context of existential analytic theory. Longitudinal studies are needed to uncover the underlying causal links, but the present findings support the validity of existential analytic approach to relationship quality.