The review of the volume entitled Vision and Resources for International Psychology, which was published in 2018 and dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the International Council of Psychologist (ICP). Editors reminded in the Preface, that ICP was founded in 1941 in New York City, and from its starts has vigorously promoted cross-national psychology.
This third ICP anniversary volume contains three parts: (1) about ICP past, its growth, current activities, and summaries of the annual ICP conferences in Yokohama (2016) and New York City (2017); (2) Resources for International Psychology includes seven essays by 12 experts, on how to be more involved in international psychology; (3) Visions of International Psychology from thirty one leaders of global psychology.
The paper presents the results of the empirical study, which has been conducted with the aim to analyze the differences in life and family values and their interactions between the spouses from cross-cultural and monocultural couples. The sample of the study consists of 330 persons, including 85 cross-cultural Arab — Russian couples (170 persons), living in Russia, and 80 monocultural couples (160 persons).The main methods were S. Schwartz’ “Value Survey”, “Test of Attitudes to Family Life” by Yu. Alyoshina, L. Gozman, & E. Dubovskaya, «Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations” by A.N. Volkova, “Marital Satisfaction Test” by V. Stolin, T. Romanova, & G. Butenko.It was revealed that the persons from cross-cultural and monocultural marriages have different life and family values hierarchies, besides, they realize their life values in family life differently. In cross-cultural marriages the spouses see the opportunities for their normative life goals realizing in the family, especially in its psychotherapeutic and parental spheres, as well as in social activity outside the family. But in their real day-to-day activities, they do not always manage to realize their life goals in the family sphere, probably because of the difficulties in interacting with their social environment, which can come from the fact that their families are more enclosed, which in turn leads to a decrease of marital satisfaction. In the cross-cultural spouses’ representations, the collectivist values are more related to family functioning, but individualistic values such as hedonism and power are perceived as incompatible with the successful functioning of the family.
This work presents a widely discussed topic in both bilingualism and creativity research that comes from pedagogical considerations. The research conducted by the author over the last decade has delivered a solid argument that speaking more than one language facilitates an individual’s creative capacities. The author has expanded the scope of his research and implemented these findings in education. His new approach includes teaching strategies from both fields, a unified Bilingual Creative Education program. The purpose of the program is to introduce students to a school curriculum in two languages and to foster their creative potential. To accomplish this goal, the program utilizes the holistic approach, which combines cognitive, personal, and environmental factors in education. The article discusses this approach and provides directions for the implementation of the program in Russia.
Existing data about the effect of concomitant or preceding motor activity on the process of insight problem solving conflicts with modern theories of insight. Therefore, it requires more detailed research of motor activity in the insight problem solving. This study investigates the regular changes of motor activity in the process of solving a classical insight problem “9 dots” (nine-dot problem). To register the motor activity parameters (length of the motor units, velocity of implementation of the motor units, duration of the pauses between the motor units) and to present conditions of the problem a tablet was used. As a result, persistent differences in the motor activity were found between successful and unsuccessful solvers in the initial and final stage of the problem solution. It turned out that successful solvers demonstrated a greater length of motor units (especially at the final stage of the solution) than unsuccessful ones. At the same time, differences in the duration of pauses between the motor units atthe initial and final stages of the solution were not found. Subjects who did and did not solve the problem do not differ in the duration of pauses between the motor units. It was found that at the final stage the frequency of the “fast” lines increases which can be associated primarily with the “offline” planning of motor activity that is the planning preceding the activity itself, rather than proceeding in parallel with it.
A psycho-semantic research of the social capital of the institutions of the Russian society has been carried out. The cross-cultural distinctions in the perceived social capital of the institutions are analyzed.
The article discusses the themes of ethnic stereotypes and lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the North and the non-indigenous peoples. Indigenous people identify with their ethnic group and prevailing positive evaluation of his perceptions about himself. Indigenous peoples believe that representatives of other ethnic groups assess their less positive, and in fact, the representatives of non-indigenous peoples evaluate them worse. Students from the number of indigenous people consider the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle (factors of evaluations): "unattractiveness - attractiveness," "peaceable - hostility", "melancholy - sanguine". Students from the number of non-indigenous people consider the most important parameters for the evaluation of their lifestyle: "welfare - non-welfare", "hostility - peaceable", "sanguine - melancholy". The testees of both samples evaluate their lifestyle more positively at the conscious, reflexive level (universal), than unconscious, uncontrolled level (implicit factor structure of evaluations). The testees of both samples evaluated their lifestyle completely different at the unconscious, non-regulated level (factorial structure of evaluations), indigenous people have more introverted, non-indigenous people have more extroverted.
Proposed that parenting may influence children’s development of emotional intelligence. However, a few research has been done in this area. In view of the reviewed literature and given the scarcity of data, we conducted an exploratory study in an as yet unexplored field. The present study aims at examining relationships among parenting practices and adolescents’ emotional intelligence. 74 students (17-18 years, females) were surveyed to assess their perception of parenting styles and their own emotional intelligence. The results showed that adolescents’ emotional intelligence correlated with one of maternal parenting styles and four of paternal parenting styles. Positive interest of parents positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding own emotions. Paternal positive interest positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for managing own emotions and emotional intelligence. Paternal directivity positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding emotions (own and other). Paternal autonomy negatively correlated with adolescents’ emotional intelligence and ability for understanding other’s emotions. Paternal incoherence negatively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding and managing own emotions.
A comparative study of ethnic identity styles in correlation with the styles of attachment in a couple and separation from the parental family of women who are in intercultural and monocultural marriages is carried out. The main sample consisted of 198 Russian women aged from 21 to 55 years old (M = 36.1), including 84 women married to a representatives of their culture and lived in Russia, 114 - married to representatives of the titular nationality of one of 6 European countries and lived in the countries of their husbands. The following methods were used: “Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment – MIMARA” (Brennan, Shaver, 1995), adapted by Kryukova, Ekimchik (2016), “Attachment to Close People Inventory” (Sabelnikova, Kashirsky, 2015), “Questionnaire of psychological separation” by J. Hoffman (1984), adapted by Sadovnikova, Dzukaeva (2014), a Method for diagnosing types of ethnic identity (Soldatova, Ryzhova, 1998).
In general, the results of the study showed that women in interethnic marriages living in a foreign cultural environment, have more secure and positive attachment relationships, both with their parents and with their spouses; but their ethnic identity style is more extreme and is associated with internal conflict. Women from intercultural marriages revealed different features of ethnic identity depending on the length of their marriage. It is shown that the style of ethnic identity is closely connected with the attachment relationships. For women in a mono-ethnic marriage living in their native country, it is more associated with separation from parents, and for women in an interethnic marriage living in a foreign country, it is closer associated with attachment to their husbands. In both cases, positive ethnic identity is associated with unsecure attachment and dependence, and extreme forms of ethnic identity are associated with secure attachment and personal autonomy in relationships.
The results of this study allow the specialists to take into account the specific social situation of interethnic couples more accurately in the course of psychological, social and other assistance to such couples, to develop constructive ways of discussing and maintaining cultural differences in the couple.