In 2010 we celebrate 105 years from the date of Victor Frankl's birth. His contribution to culture remains till now not estimated enough. In article it is traced origin and development of the concept of V. Frankl against crisis of the western culture of XX century. It is shown that the doctrine about spiritual life of the person and search for meaning contains the powerful impulse to an overcoming the crisis.
The article presents the results of qualitative research of the dynamics of close relations of man and woman. Phenomenological analysis of respondent`s interviews allowed to identify the microstructure of a relationship that fell apart: the stages of their transformation and substantial content, specific to each stage. The essential contents of the relationships between man and woman, which continue to develop and become closer, despite the fact that they had a crisis, also have been shown. Recommendations for psychological consultation of the clients making the decision on continuation or the termination of the close interpersonal relations are formulated.
Phenomenological analysis of interviews with respondents experiencing dependence in close interpersonal relationships allowed to develop a structural model of the phenomenon by discerning invariant and variable components of dependence in close interpersonal relationship between a man and a woman. A special attention to the never-ending vicious circle “closeness – estrangement” specific to dependent relationships is given. It is shown that differentiation of interpersonal dependence is based on the type of the deficiency that is characterized by the specific need of compensation by the partner from whom one depends. This deficiency corresponds to the content of the fundamental existential motivations: lack in support, lack of experience of life, lack in self-acceptance and self-esteem. In come cases a combination of deficits of the first three fundamental motivations can be observed. The deficit of meaning was present in all cases of dependence. According to the given integral model it is possible to specify the structure of dependence, to discern between different types of dependence according to the compensated deficits, and to offer individualized approaches of prevention and psychological assistance.
Working on the “psychotherapy in spiritual terms”, Viktor Frankl sought to put the problem of searching for meaning on a solid anthropological foundation. The article argues that it is the philosophical doctrine of Max Scheler that became such a foundation. The German philosopher’s ideas about the spiritual Person underlay Viktor Frankl’s ontology of the Person discussed in this article. The quest for meaning, postulated by Viktor Frankl as the primary motivating force of a man, became the immediate development of Max Scheler idea of the Person as the free and responsible spiritual “active center” of human being.
When doubt arises in a decision-making situation, a polyphony of inner voices may emerge, each voice motivating the person towards a specific choice option, often even suggesting reasons in favour of this option. The paper presents two steps of a proposed method that facilitates finding an authentic position. During the first step, inner voices are verbalised, and specific nuances of their intonation are paid attention to. At the second step, the person is asked to feel and estimate how close each of these voices is to his or her own deeper Self. Examples of application of the method within counseling practice are presented.
15.01.07 Философские вопросы и методология психологии
15.01.11 Современное состояние и перспективы развития психологии
15.21.51 Психология личности
Placed in a context psychological problem of human "Self", present study describes lucid dreaming as an altered state of consciousness, where personal feeling of "Self" is experienced as a source of autonomous, subjective activity. Viewed results indicate that intuitive feeling of "Self", which provides basis for a personal, subjective activity, is not entirely a hypothetical concept, created by the European culture, but also an empirical fact, related to the very essence of human being.