The optimal schedule, on the one hand, is a practical necessity to conserve resources, for example, problem in the multiprocessor computing systems. On the other hand, many of the scheduling problems are NP-hard and can not be solved exactly in polynomial time. Flow shop scheduling problem is the one of the most famous optimization problem. The scheduling problem is to find sequences of jobs on given machines with the objective of minimizing some function of the job completion times. All jobs pass through all machines in the same order. There is exact polynomial Johnson's algorithm for two machines. But it is NP-hard problem in case of an arbitrary number of machines. In practice, either trivial exhaustive search algorithms with exponential complexity are used when the number of jobs is not large, either some fast approximation algorithms, for example, the frontal algorithm. In this paper a new approach for the approximate solution of the flow shop scheduling problem is proposed. It uses double sorting. For each job, the stage durations are previously sorted in descending order. Stage numbers are written as a character string (classification). These job classifications lexicographically are sorted in descending order. Therefore, jobs with the longest last stage will be executed firstly. Then work with the longest penultimate stage will be executed and so on. It means that the last machine, and then the penultimate machine etc. at the beginning are loaded with the largest jobs. It allows them to avoid idle waiting for the next jobs. The practical implications of this paper is higher accuracy of the lexicographical algorithm compared with the frontal algorithm to works, where the number of jobs more than the number of stages, however the frontal algorithm is faster. The paper provides data about accuracy and execution time of these algorithms depending on the number of jobs and stages.
This paper considers the design and development stages of one module of business games conduction system of competence-based business game studio. Competence-based business game studio is an information system which is destined for competent business games development and conduction and oriented to getting of qualified competence level. «Active resource» is a module for business games conduction information system. This module is responsible for the dialog with a user during passing a business game. This paper contains the designed structure of business games conduction system and the «Active resource» module architecture. Both business games conduction information system and «Active resource» consist of two modules. There are an automaton model and an operating model. The automaton model represents the algorithm logical scheme which is a text string having game scenario. The operating model is a plenty of sets which contain scene models, display models and recourse models. It was designed a database which includes the information about scene, display and recourse models, algorithm logical schemes, active resources dialogs stored.
Object of research is the business games conduction system. Subject of research is the implementation of user interaction with the information system in selection resources at the decision point. The aim of a given research is the design and development of program «Active resource» module for business games conduction information system. In the paper it was used such methods as modeling, object-oriented analysis, and decomposition. The result of the paper is a designed and implemented prototype software product that realizes the communication with the user through dialogs.
With the development of information technology business games, also known as simulated business games, becoming one of the main tools of the learning process in the business. The games business is very important to create a scenario in which the solutions are comparable with those conditions, which players will encounter in real life. This type of training will not only help to train new employees to certain competencies, but will improve your skills as an experienced employee.
The authors propose an approach to the construction of new educational environments, is to develop design, technical, organizational, methodological tools of the active implementation of methods of formation of competence - competency of business games.
The research considers the business game design subsystem of Competence-based Business Game Studio source environment. The key distinctive features of Competence-based Business Game Studio are domain independence and ability to base upon business-processes described in a certain notation. The design subsystem has to include software tools to convert unformalized and loosely formalized business processes description and competences required for model design to highly formalized models developed with the use of software and hardware suite. Such kind of tools is represented by interactive visual editor, which is being designed in the course of this work. The editor enables resource model development and allows to connect each business-process operation with relevant resource set.
The problems arising in the theoretical investigation of the signal spectrum reflected by the rectilinearly flying radar target (RT) are considered. Using the Doppler frequency analysis (DFA) method, which allows to associate the structure of the secondary Doppler spectrum with different target parameters and the processing method of the signal under study, it can be shown that the reflected radar signal represents in the spectral region a set of harmonic components from individual scattering centers (SC). Applying the basic provisions of the DFA, analytical dependencies describing the structure of the spectral portrait are obtained. When analyzing Doppler frequencies to ensure high resolution and the necessary dynamic range of measurements of the radar cross-section (RCS) of local scatterers of at least 35 dB, it is advisable to use the window functions of Kaiser-Bessel, Blackman-Harris and the like, as they combine a relatively low level of side lobes with a narrow main peak. In mathematical modeling, it is preferable to use the Kaiser-Bessel window function, since it has a simpler mathematical description in the frequency domain, it is easy to calculate the Fourier series expansion coefficients and the possibility of reducing the level of the side lobes. It is shown that as a spectral portrait of a RT for research and application in mathematical modeling, it is expedient to use the one-sided amplitude spectrum of the reflected signal, formed in convolution with the Fourier transform of the window function. The presence of amplitude and phase noise caused by deliberate enemy interference, trajectory instabilities of target flight, internal noises of the receiving path, etc., leads to transformations of the spectral portrait of the target obtained by the DFA method, which is expressed as a change in the amplitude of Doppler harmonics (due to the amplitude noise), and in the random displacement of their central frequencies.
Currently in training widely used computer business game, simulating the real conditions of companies. As a subject area in designing a business game organized by the business processes of real enterprises, the perpetrators of which must possess certain competencies. There are many software products that allows to model business processes and build the game scenario based on this model, but their characteristic feature is orientation to a particular business process and scenario development of the game only for this process. When developing a software product, which you can use to build the game scenario for any subject area, there is a problem with the automated build script for models of business processes. The process of constructing the scenario of the business game consists of several stages, one of which is the transformation of the business process model in a unified business process. Models of real business processes are weakly formalized description of the subject area of business game, so this transition is a challenging task. The paper considers the algorithm of transformation of models of real business processes, represented in IDEF0 notation, the model unified business process based on the ontological approach. For transformation build ontological models of elements and a graphical representation in the editor Protégé ontology for the description of the matching elements and their graphical representations created by appropriate limitations, developed rules of transformation, which is also reflected in the ontological model. A query to the ontology that displays matching elements of one notation to another notation built. As an example, given the query, allowing obtaining the matching element of the work process in IDEF0 notation to other notations.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are widely used due to the “Industry 4.0” concept development within which digital enterprise transformation and the use of new management techniques based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data analytics assume primary importance. In general, CPS is a class of information systems whose computational elements are integrated into physical processes and objects; such systems can interact with each other using Internet protocols. The growing number of situations requiring CPS implementation determines the necessity of CPS design that takes into account the specific factors of a subject area. The CPS structure includes hardware and software which in many ways affect the security and cost of a technical solution, the convenience of user interaction with the system. A significant CPS programs feature is ensuring long-term performance and high sustainability which is largely complicated by the lack of unified solutions (templates) for CPS software design. This obstacle affects the realization of other software requirements as well. The purpose of the study is to identify ways to optimize the cost/quality ratio of the CPS software being designed that uses the technologies of the Internet of Things and present findings in the form of recommendations suitable for further use. One of the methods that realize complex organizational and technical solutions evaluation is Value Engineering (VE). CPS software functions have been identified and the anticipated system software structure has been determined. The results of applying the VE method to CPS software have been reflected and the conclusions considering the practical significance of the study have been drawn. The analysis has been carried out within the priority area of scientific development established in the National research university Higher school of economics (Perm) – “Research on control methods in cyber-physical systems”.
In this paper the formation stage of functional requirements to programming complex namely the studio of competence-based business games has been examined.The above studio is considered to be instrumental enviroment designed for development and playing the competence-based business games. A competence-based business games is defined as ergatic (human-machine) information system the aim of which is to recieve a certain level of professional competences in the process of scenario implementation defined by business-process models of the subject domain. To describe and analyse the functional requirements to the studio competence-based business game the use case diagrams have been used.