In the article, there have been presented the results of assessment of working conditions' impact on workers of a vessel metal hulls assembly shop of a machine building plant on levels of morbidity with temporal disability (MTD). The assessment of the working conditions has been made according to the results of the assessment of workplaces, the levels of MTD on the ground of the longterm average annual indices for 2005-2014. The cause-and-effect relations between the working conditions and the MTD levels have been established by means of a comparison of the working conditions' classes according to the results of the workplaces' assessment and the MTD levels characterizing the impact of harmful factors on the most vulnerable human body organs and systems. According to the study results, it has been established that the MTD levels of the respiratory viral infections, diseases of the respiratory organs, diseases of the locomotor system and connective tissue, diseases of the genitourinary system were statistically significantly connected with the effect of low air temperatures, high concentrations of harmful chemical substances in the working zone air, high levels of local vibration and high labor burden.
This article presents the results of analysis of mortality dynamics among population of 9 territories of Arctic and Subarctic regions, using linear regression technique. Allcause mortality reduction was significantly greater in the 4 territories of the country. These 4 regions were: Murmansk region and Komi Republic (for females), Archangelsk region (for both sexes) and Republic Sakha (Yakutia) (for males). The following regions displayed mortality reduction which was close to national averages or less: YaNAO, KhMAO and Magadan region. Mortality rates among males declined faster than that among females. Relatively lower mortality indicators in the territories of YaNAO and KhMAO could likely be attributed to migration of the population to midlatitude regions with accumulated burden of northern pathology. Mortality reduction tendencies from the leading death causes (diseases of circulatory system, respiratory diseases, external causes) in the region are close to national averages. The most strongly mortality reduced from brain strokes, myocardial infarction and external causes of death. The mortality rates and the mortality dynamics can be described as relatively positive in the region on the whole, except for “other diseases of circulatory system” category, where mortality rates exceeded national average twice in particular years. Life expectancy in the Arctic region is close to that in Russia, except two autonomous regions KhantyMansiisky and YamaloNenetsky, where life expectancy was higher than national average by 1.7 and 2.6 years among males and by 0.4 and 0.7 years among females, respectively. The situation in Nenetsky and Chukotsky Autonomous Regions and in Magadan region remains unclear because of possible inaccuracy of primary data.
Population process in dynamic development ongoing in Murmansk Region (located beyond the Arctic Circle on the territory of the European part of the Russian Federation Arctic zone in the period 2001-2015 has been characterized in the paper. Major features of natural population movement (fertility, mortality) including labor potential have been esteemed. A major loss of labor potential was due to population decline (22,4 %), despite positive increase in 1.38 times of the total fertility rate and life expectancy among men up to 64,0 years, women - 75,7 years. It is shown that mortality increase was registered in the region among males of working age from disease that could be connected not only with Arctic climate and geographic conditions but also with labor conditions on industrial complex production of Kola Arctic Circle. The rate of diseases of respiratory and circulatory systems as well as malignant neoplasms increased in monotowns in Murmansk Region. 93 % of population is urban, which is a source of labor for city forming enterprise. Proportion of people working in harmful exposure in the industrial complex enterprises was: men- 68,0 %, women - 36,8 %, including enterprises engaged in the extraction of commercial minerals: men - 78,7, women - 50,0 %.
Indicators of mortality of urban population in four northern regions of the Russian Federation were analyzed: the Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Magadan regions and the Republic Sakha (Yakutia). The study period covered eleven years between 1999 and 2009. All these regions are characterized by higher mortality rates and lower life expectancy than the national average indicators. After 2003, life expectancy began to increase due to reduction in cardio-vascular mortality. Mortality rates in the regional capitals were somewhat higher than the respective average rates for all urban population within the region.
Goal of study: to carry out an analysis of drinking water viral contamination dynamics in the Arkhangelsk region for development of proposals improving water supply of the population. In order to reveal markers of viral contamination in water, there have been carried out examinations of water samples by a laboratory in the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Arkhangelsk Region from 2006 to 2014 with use of different methods. With use of the virological method and the method of enzyme immunoassay (EIA), there were examined 934 drinking water samples from the public drinking water supply system, and with use of the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - 617 water samples. Presence of enteroviruses and their genetic material in drinking water samples was confirmed in the laboratory in 2008, 2010 and 2014. In what connection, the proportion of samples with positive research results for enteroviruses with use of the PCR method was in 2008 - 4.5 %, in 2010 - 7.4 %, in 2014 - 1.6 %. In the analysis with use of the virological method, a positive result was received in 2010 - there were isolated 3 strains of Coxsackie enteroviruses В5 (2.4 %) and in 2014 - there was isolated 1 strain of Coxsackie enteroviruses В3 (0.5 %). The results of the analysis of water samples carried out with use of the EIA method with the goal to reveal hepatitis А virus and rotaviruses antigens have shown annually registered facts of presence of markers of these causative agents in piped water. Thus in the mentioned years, the proportion of samples containing group-specific antigens of rotaviruses was 1.3 %, hepatitis A virus antigen - 0.5 %. Annually in water samples, there are detected DNA/RNA of the following microorganisms: Salmonella spp., rotaviruses of A group, Noroviruses of 2 genotype, astroviruses, adenoviruses of F group. In the structure of the detected DNA/RNA of the causative agents, there prevail rotaviruses of A group (57.4 %) and adenoviruses of F group (24.1 %). There have been proposed recommendations for solution of problems of water situation improvement for supply of good drinking water to the Arkhangelsk region population.
According to a systematic review of published data in both the national and international scientific indexing systems, including the results of our own researches, there have been selected evidence-based criteria and internal genotype-phenotype risk determinants for assessing the individual susceptibility to the acute cold exposure. In accordance with these criteria, the list of cold-related health conditions was defined. This list includes 33 classes and groups of diseases and conditions by ICD-10 codes, arising from or tightly associated with the cold exposure. According to the comorbidity principles, the novel quantitative predictive model for assessing the individual susceptibility to the acute cold exposure was developed and validated. This assessment takes into account, in addition to the meteorological risk factors, also internal risk determinants, including physical status, behavioral, pathogenic and functional disorders, as well as receiving thermoregulation-altering pharmaceuticals prescribed by recommended therapeutic doses. The algorithm for calculating the individual health risk and recommended time limits based on the use of suggested comorbidity index for the acute exposure to cold in an open area or in unheated premises without special active thermal protection is described.
The article deals with actual methodological and organizational and technical problems that prevent the correct obtaining and interpretation of evidence of the harmful effects of environmental pollution on public health, as well as non-critical application of the principle of linear summation of the frequency of harmful effects of unidirectional active substances at any level of their impact are considered. The limitations and conditions under which such summation can be applied if the content of harmful substances in the environment below the relevant MAC. The needs for further development of the methodology for the aggregated assessment of the harmful effects of pollution on health are identified. It is shown that the model cannot be considered evidence-based if it is unable to provide a sufficiently reliable prediction of harm to health in cases where the risk environment is represented by a combination of factors of different nature and conditions of their impact that do not meet the criteria of stability and coherence of the Association.
The article considers some basic issues of environmental safety of Russia and some other countries. It is shown that to a significant degree the reasons of many environmental issues have anthropogenic origin. Taking into account environmental situation in the Russian Federation environmental safety becomes the most significant component of national security in connection with the necessity of ensuring human health and well-being, as well as consideration of environmental aspects in economic policy of the country when economic development and environmental issues can no longer be considered separately. At present, the need for consideration of ongoing climate change has a special importance for ensuring environmental safety of the country along with full consideration of the importance of natural capital in the system of national accounts of Russia. The article also touches upon the main aspects of the concepts of “green economy” and “green growth” that represent a fundamental idea of modern sustainable development, as well as a set of measures proposed within the green growth strategy that might adjusted to the national context of the Russian Federation. It is also shown that wide application of environmentally safe and resource-efficient technologies, low-waste and wasteless production, re-use and recycling of wastes and materials as a source of raw materials in the economy become conditions for ensuring environmental safety of Russia. The authors also analyze the experience and ensuring environmental safety of some OECD member-countries in the light of “green economy” concept and consider possibilities for applying that experience for ensuring environmental safety of Russia on the basis of comprehensive integration of environmental considerations in economic policy of the country.The article also contains recommendations on the alignment of legislative base of the country with requirements of green economy.
The regional characteristics of the epidemic process and the incidence rates of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Arkhangelsk region have been examined in the paper. In the period 2005 -2015 the annual TBE incidence rates per 100 thousand population were from 2,0 to 5,4 times higher as compared to the corresponding averages reported for the whole population of the Russian Federation. The most possible causes of the increased incidence rates of tick-borne viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region and temporal trends in its changes as well as potential risk factors of TBE extension have been stated. The vectors of viral encephalitis in the Arkhangelsk region are represented by two types of ixodic ticks: Ixodes persulcatus (the "taiga" tick) and Ixodes ricinus ("forest" tick), the Ixodes persulcatus constitutes over 99 % of their total number. Spring-summer season is typical for TBE cases occurrence which is associated with higher tick activity in this area. The average tick infection rate for the period was 7.8 %. The cases of TBE are reported to occur mainly in urban citizens; and lethality rate due to TBE reached 4.3%. Since 2010 decrease in the TBE morbidity has being observed in the Arkhangelsk region. Reducing morbidity can be connected to the increase in the proportion of vaccinated persons, which reached 6.3 % of the total population of the Arkhangelsk region. The main indices of the acaricide treatment volume which increased since 2005 nearly 6 times, from 128.2 to 740.0 hectares have been stated. Considering the fact that the area of acaricide treatment in the region increases every year, and the number of persons seeking medical advice concerning tick bites remains high it is necessary to control the effectiveness of acaricide treatment regularly. Core measures to decrease the tick-borne viral encephalitis conducted by the Regional Office of Federal Service for Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing as well as ways for further research have been introduced.