For a long period of time, the sphere of higher education in Russia was an extensively growing market which satisfied public demand and in addition to government funding attracted extra funds from families and private funding sources. However, the financial crisis, demographic recession, and rising instability of family incomes had a profound effect on the market of educational services. These processes have impacted the quentially-linked main stages of the educational system, which have directly led to changes in the structural components of the educational market and its transition to a shrinking market. Based on the recent researches, the paper discusses these new characteristics of the education market. Finding solutions to overcome the deficiencies of the existing vocational training system to ensure the competitiveness of graduates in the labor market, as well as the assessment of trends in social demand for higher education in Russia, are pertinent topics for this research reflecting the situation of emergence from a real crisis.
Issues of better access to higher education in various countries increasingly fit specific consistent patterns as desired results are achieved: from positive effects in the initial stages to problems that prevent growth in the number of students in the state-subsidized segment at subsequent stages, including the rigid regulation by the state. To confirm similar processes against the background of the demographic problems in Russia affecting the number of students, an empirical analysis was performed to reveal the factors influencing a surge in demand on the basis of an assessment of the correlation of a higher education resource base, production, and the industrial capacity of a region’s development. This study shows successive stages of change in the public demand for higher education and confirms the justified consequences of the transition to decisive actions pertaining to the optimization of educational, material, technical, financial, and intellectual resources.
This article explores how behavioral merger remedies of the Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation affects the price level. The main assumption implies that issuance of price remedies by antimonopoly authority may cause downward price rigidity as a result of ratchet effect or tacit collusion. The article includes analysis of 11 mergers with behavioral remedies during the period 2006-2010 and price dynamics for 14 products. In the course of the research the hypothesis that the issuance of price remedies brought about downward price rigidity was not confirmed.
The problem of authoritarianism is now becoming ever more relevant. The comprehensive analysis of authoritarianism takes into account the dynamics of authoritarian attitudes and values at the individual level, the means of political control, and the prospects of institutional transformations in contemporary Russia. This research proposes a new approach to the analysis and measurement of authoritarianism in order to determine the nature and the influential effect of the authoritarian syndrome on political processes and, moreover, to find the reasons for the viability of authoritarianism in modern Russia. What are the individual, societal and political prerequisites that contribute to increasing authoritarianism? The analysis of political changes in Russia’s system over the past decade shows the dynamics of the political institutions of state power from pro-democratic to authoritarian. Institutional changes in the political system have responded to the requirements of the population for authoritarianism – the desire for strong leadership and the establishment of order. How does the implementation of state policies both enhance and benefit from widespread authoritarianism? This research represents an attempt, on the basis of systematic studies of authoritarianism, to identify effective ways to overcome the authoritarian syndrome and to determine the trajectory of the evolution of political institutions in Russia.