Appeal to the problems associated with the trade unions to influence socio-economic processes in the modern conditions, it is due to several important reasons. First, the weakening of trade union positions in the major industrialized countries of the West since the mid 70-ies of the last century largely violated formed over decades of social partnership mechanism and led to the loss of a number of social gains. Second, the mechanism of social partnership, which was formed in Russia since the beginning of reform, characterized by the fact that the trade unions can not yet be considered as equal parties, able to withstand the planned and already taken "unpopular" measures. In the course of economic theory examines the impact of the model of trade unions in the labor market is far from the real processes, and even distort them. In this article an attempt to show the differences between the effects of the trade unions in theory (and in textbooks expounding this theory) and in reality. For This critically examines two important thesis about the "dangers" of trade unions: the myth of the role of trade unions as a cause of unemployment and postulate about the contribution of trade unions in the unwinding of inflation, it shows how to use these theoretical positions to justify social policies, as well as traces the evolution of the main Russian claims and foreign trade unions. The conclusion about the need to review the provisions of the adverse effects of trade unions on the economy and social sphere in the textbooks on economic theory.
Public municipal transport is organized in different ways in various cities around the world. In this article we observe and classify methods of organization of municipal public transport in the cities of Europe and the U.S. as well as in some other cities in developed countries. We also observe the contracting features applied in different cities and examine the primary means of public transport financing depending on the aims of municipalites.
Finale of the article, the first part of which was published in Rossiisky Ekonomichesky Zhurnal, No. 2 for 2013. The authors pinpointed and classified the organizational forms of municipal transport in cities of Europe, USA and some other developed countries, identified specifics of the respective contracts and described different ways of financing the transit system by municipal authorities.
In reviewing a range of factors of the current debt crisis in Western Europe, the authors single out the major one, notably, evolution of internal contradictions of European integration. There are attempts at resolving the contradictions by legislative reforming of EU economic policy, primarily of monetary and fiscal ones.
На основе итогов исследования взаимоотношений между Соединенным Королевством и ЕС в период с середины 1970-х годов автор анализирует переговоры между Лондоном и Брюсселем о выходе Британии из ЕС, стартовавшие в июне 2017 г. Отмечается, что ключевой пункт переговоров -- содержание будущего соглашения о торговле; другой интенсивно обсуждаемый сложный вопрос – о режиме на границе между Ирландией и Северной Ирландией. Устанавливая фактическую безрезультативность переговорного процесса, автор обосновывает вывод, согласно которому брекзит «без сделки» чреват для Соединенного Королевства комплексом негативных экономических, социальных и политических последствий. Этой широко обсуждаемой перспективой во многом объясняется тот факт, что с конца 2017 г. более половины британцев оценивают брекзит отрицательно.