Sequencing of the human genome began in 1994. It took 10 years of work by many scientific teams to get a rough sequence of human DNA. Modern sequencing technologies allow you to get the genome of a specific person in a few days. We discuss the success of modern bioinformatics associated with the emergence of high-performance sequencing platforms, which not only contributed to the expansion of the capabilities of various areas of biology and other related Sciences, but also gave rise to the phenomenon of big data. The article substantiates the need to develop new technologies and methods for organizing storage, management, analysis and visualization of big data. Modern bioinformatics is faced not only with the problem of big data, but also with a huge variety of processing and presentation methods, the simultaneous existence of various software tools and data formats. We discuss ways to solve these problems, in particular by using the experience of working with big data from other areas of modern life, such as network analysis and business data analysis. New database management systems other than relational ones will help solve the problem of storing big data and ensuring acceptable search query execution time. New programming technologies, such as generalized programming and visual programming, are designed to solve the problem of the diversity of genomic data formats and provide the ability to quickly create your own scripts for data processing.
It is necessary not only to develop information and communication infrastructures and algorithms for distributed and cloud processing of data coming from all kinds of sensors and sensors, but also to design new materials that enable the production of safe, effective and accessible to the general public test systems when creating digital health saving systems as part of the development of modern electronic medical monitoring technologies. An analysis of the market for consumables intended for use in rapid diagnostic devices shows that disposable test strips on a flexible polymer base with high biological resistance to the effects of blood components are most in demand. It has been shown that surface modification of polyethylene by fluorination, sulfonation and plasmification methods provides a significant reduction in platelet adhesion to processed polymer films. It was also suggested that the surface energy of the modified material has a determining effect on its hemocompatibility.This work is devoted to the formation of an analytical model of the surface morphology of fluorinated polyethylene, as well as a quantitative analysis of the structural and functional relationships between the parameters of the morphological model and the resistance of the material to platelet adhesion. The widespread use of the discussed approach to increasing the thromboresistance of polymeric materials will increase the reliability of glycemic analyzes performed by patients on their own using portable express diagnostic systems (glucometers).
Practically in every area of modern science - computational biology and bioinformatics, biomedicine, astronomy and astrophysics, meteorology and climatology, molecular physics and elementary particle physics there is a continuous growth of a huge importance of the obtained experimental data, and the total amount is measured in exabytes (billion gigabytes). The success of these scopes depends on the effective interaction of a large number of researchers working in various laboratories around the world, and the possibility of moving large amounts of data in real time. The resources of computer networks in the 21st century are becoming critical to perform these tasks. The biggest scientific programs are considered and an overview of computer science networks allowing to make high speed data transmission for these projects is provided.
The rapid development of information technology in today's society dictates new requirements for information security technologies of data, methods of remote access and data processing, integrated reduction of financial expenses on working with information. In recent years, the ideal solution to all these problems that is widely suggested is the concept of cloud computing. This technique really makes a number of clear advantages when working with information and is already widely used in a number of areas of scientific and business activities, but many aspects of information security, characteristic of cloud computing is still far from a satisfactory solution. The article discusses the main challenges of information security of cloud computing. A review of methods to ensure data security, the choice of the most secure cloud computing is discussed, and models to provide the method of increasing the security of cloud computing are looked at.
Today we have the problem of big science data. The information collecting in science experiments, especially in bioinformatics and astrophysics grows in amazing rate. In this paper we consider special program techniques and computer technologies used for work with superlarge volumes of data. Also, we discuss the state of affairs with the big data in the Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS and in the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory (Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physics Institute RAS).
Due to high mutagenesis of intron sequences, intron evolution is usually considered in terms of evolution of exon-intron structures (EIS). The shifting of intron over short distances (rare evolutionary event called intron sliding) could lead to the change of intron phase, i.e. the intron position relative to the open reading frame. Here we analyze the EIS from four datasets of eukaryotic orthologues in order to find out the preferable choice of intron phase during sliding and to study the correlation between orthologous intron lengths. To identify the orthologous introns we have constructed the alignments of EIS of orthologous genes. Several sliding events with intron phase change were revealed from the analysis; however, our initial hypothesis that in the process of sliding introns prefer to change its phase to 0 more frequently, was not been confirmed. Nevertheless, it is necessary to expand the analysis on a larger dataset for making a proper conclusions. Despite high variability of intron length, some taxonomic groups share the similar length values. Moreover, some length conservation could be observed if instead of intron length L we consider a normalized length N = (L-A)/A, where A is an average length within an orthologous intron group. E.g. for ptprd genes of birds (28 species) the normalized value is in the interval (-0.15, 0.15) for 85.2 % of introns what is significantly higher than the values for random lengths set in accordance with the intron lengths distribution. That length "conservation" leads us to the question what intron length was in the ancient introns.
пространственная структура РНК, мультиплет, стем, псевдоузел, линк, граф
An approach to the information analysis is considered for the case when the information is presented by words of finite length over a finite alphabet. A method of generating a measure of symbolic diverseness of words based on peak characteristics of a shift entropy function is proposed. The shift entropy function is formally defined using a unit translation operator and the entropy of discrete distributions. A model example is presented together with some results of application of the proposed measure in the clustering of families of plants using the analysis of genome of their representatives.