The paper is devoted to the explication of main concepts and ideas of Schelling’s first speculative theology i.e. philosophy of identity (1801-1806). As a main source the author analyzes Schelling’s Presentation Of My System Of Philosophy and I. Troxler’s summary of Schelling’s lectures delivered in Summer semester 1801. The latter text is important because it contains (1) an outline of general principles of Schelling’s world-outlook, (2) a comprehensive explication for the paragraphs of Presentation. The author presents reconstruction of the whole Schelling’s all-unity doctrine with accent to the concept of “intellectual contemplation” without which the doctrine loses its inner logic. The paper also deals with the criticism of Schelling’s absolute identity doctrine by his contemporaries. C.A. Eschenmayer poses sharp and uncomfortable questions which make Schelling modify his theory with an idea of the so-called Abfall. Serious objections to the Schelling’s doctrine come also from J.G. Fichte and J. Fries. This intra-traditional criticism gives us possibility to mark out specific traits of the early form of Schelling’s philosophy of identity. The mains of them are (a) the interpretation of intellectual contemplation as the exit from the subjectivity and (b) the conception of the indissoluble dialectical connection between the finite world and the Absolute however without detailed basis.
The polemical treatise by Ibn Ḥazm (994–1064), the famous Andalusian Muslim author, has a section on the Incarnation of God, in which the author provides a critical survey of doctrinal divisions in Christianity. Similarly to other Muslim authors, Ibn Ḥazm describes three main Christian denominations: the “Melkites”, the “Jacobites”, and the “Nestorians”. Thus, the Greek Chalcedonians and those of the Latin West were virtually combined into the same denomination. The article discusses Ibn Ḥazm’s arguments against the main Christian dogma with a special reference to the probable influence of the polemical works of the medieval Muslim scholars on the relationship between the two Chalcedonian groups.
According to the widely spread opinion among historians of philosophy, Plato makes a philosophical conceptualization of word αἰών, using it in the sense of “eternity” and implying infinity and timelessness. However, a careful analysis of Plato’s cosmological ideas in the context of early usage of αἰών gives a basis for rejection of this traditional point of view. The paper presents an attempt to interpret the concept relying on the most reliable meaning of the word – “Life”, extended to the sense of the fullness of being. Thus, our approach seems not only hermeneutically adequate, but gives a new perspective on the central questions of the Plato’s cosmology.
The new commented translation of the treatises of the Neoplatonist philosopher Plotinus (205-270 CE) with Greek text, edited by J. Chitchaline in chronological order. The edition is discussed in comparison with earlier translations of Plotinus Enneads made by G. Malevansky and T. Sidash.