The article discusses practices of overcoming critical life situations which reflect the duality of the social sphere. Structural limitations as external objective circumstances form a limited set of alternatives, however, an actor, given his (her) own motivation and supporting agents, is able to realize one of the possible scripts of overcoming the crisis. The specific nature of research into the practices of overcoming critical life situations, which are not readily available for everyday observation, predetermines the choice of the biographical (narrative) method as a research strategy focused on subjective interpretations of one's life past events.
The author argues that the classical method of transcendence of the experience bases on temporality and substantiality – the structures that are found by the way of reflection. In classical theory the basis of the experience lies beyond the world of objects. Phenomenologists deny that decision because of its formal character. For Sartre self-consciousness is pre-reflective, i.e. enclosed in the awareness of object. However, phenomenological approach presupposes the same reflective structures. The way of deciding the problem of deformalisation of the basis of conscious is to understand it not as an immediate givenness, but as the result of self-knowledge.
The article presents the data of long-term (1988-2008) sociological research on the socio-economic and environmental problems of the indigenous Evenk municipal district, arising from the possible implementation of a hydro-electric project on the Nizhnyaya Tunguska river.