Reflectivity of shocked compressed xenon plasma is calculated within the framework of the density functional theory approach. Dependencies on the frequency of incident radiation and on the plasma density are analyzed. The Fresnel formula for the reflectivity is used. The longitudinal expression in the long-wavelength limit is applied for the calculation of the imaginary part of the dielectric function. The real part of the dielectric function is calculated by means of the Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with experimental data. The approach for the calculation of plasma frequency is developed.
We study properties of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of classical spin models with local updates. We derive analytic expressions for the mean value of the acceptance rate of single-spin-flip algorithms for the one-dimensional Ising model. We find that for the Metropolis algorithm the average acceptance rate is a linear function of energy. We further provide numerical results for the energy dependence of the average acceptance rate for the three- and four-state Potts model, and the XY model in one and two spatial dimensions. In all cases, the acceptance rate is an almost linear function of the energy in the critical region. The variance of the acceptance rate is studied as a function of the specific heat. While the specific heat develops a singularity in the vicinity of a phase transition, the variance of the acceptance rate stays finite.
We study horizontal streaming excited by means of a low-frequency and low-intensity acoustic wave in 2D freely suspended films of thermotropic smectic liquid crystals. Acoustic pressure induces fast periodic transverse oscillations of the film, which produce in-plane stationary couples of vortices slowly rotating in opposite directions owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. The parameters of the vortices are measured using a new method, based on tracking solidlike disk-shaped islands. The horizontal motion occurs only when the amplitude of the acoustic pressure exceeds the threshold value, which can be explained by Bingham-like behavior of the smectic film. The measurements above threshold are in good agreement with existing theoretical predictions. We demonstrate experimentally that in-plane flow is well controlled by changing the acoustic pressure, excitation frequency, and geometry of the film. The observations open the way to using the phenomenon in nondisplay applications.
We investigate both analytically and by computer simulations the ensemble- and time-averaged, nonergodic,and aging properties of massive particles diffusing in a medium with a time dependent diffusivity. We call thisstochastic diffusion process the (aging) underdamped scaled Brownian motion (UDSBM). We demonstrate howthe mean squared displacement (MSD) and the time-averaged MSD of UDSBM are affected by the inertial term inthe Langevin equation, both at short, intermediate, and even long diffusion times. In particular, we quantify the bal-listic regime for the MSD and the time-averaged MSD as well as the spread of individual time-averaged MSD tra-jectories. One of the main effects we observe is that, both for the MSD and the time-averaged MSD, for superdiffu-sive UDSBM the ballistic regime is much shorter than for ordinary Brownian motion. In contrast, for subdiffusiveUDSBM, the ballistic region extends to much longer diffusion times. Therefore, particular care needs to be takenunder what conditions the overdamped limit indeed provides a correct description, even in the long time limit. Wealso analyze to what extent ergodicity in the Boltzmann-Khinchin sense in this nonstationary system is broken,both for subdiffusive and superdiffusive UDSBM. Finally, the limiting case of ultraslow UDSBM is considered,with a mixed logarithmic and power-law dependence of the ensemble- and time-averaged MSDs of the particles.In the limit of strong aging, remarkably, the ordinary UDSBM and the ultraslow UDSBM behave similarly in theshort time ballistic limit. The approaches developed here open ways for considering other stochastic processesunder physically important conditions when a finite particle mass and aging in the system cannot be neglected
Evolution on changing fitness landscapes (seascapes) is an important problem in evolutionary biology. We consider the Moran model of finite population evolution with selection in a randomly changing, dynamic environment. In the model, each individual has one of the two alleles, wild type or mutant. We calculate the fixation probability by making a proper ansatz for the logarithm of fixation probabilities. This method has been used previously to solve the analogous problem for the Wright-Fisher model. The fixation probability is related to the solution of a third-order algebraic equation (for the logarithm of fixation probability).We consider the strong interference of landscape fluctuations, sampling, and selection when the fixation process cannot be described by the mean fitness. Such an effect appears if the mutant allele has a higher fitness in one landscape and a lower fitness in another, compared with the wild type, and the product of effective population size and fitness is large. We provide a generalization of the Kimura formula for the fixation probability that applies to these cases. When the mutant allele has a fitness (dis-)advantage in both landscapes, the fixation probability is described by the mean fitness.
We provide theoretical analysis of the reflectance of shock-compressed plasmas and warm dense matter for normal incidence of laser radiation as well as for the dependence of s- and p-polarized reflectivity on the incidence angle. The self-consistent approach for the calculation of the optical and electronic properties of warm dense matter and nonideal plasmas developed in our previous works is extended for the description of normal and polarized reflectivity from the broadened optically nonuniform medium. Two methods are applied for the calculation of the reflectivity from spatially broadened optically nonuniform medium. The first one is based on the solution of the Helmholtz equation for the amplitudes of the electromagnetic field. Another one is based on Drude theory of reflection. It allows us to calculate the ratio of the s- and p-polarized reflectivity if dependence of the dielectric function on distance is known. For the case of the polarized reflectivity, the particular attention is concentrated on the Brewster angle. The calculation results for the dielectric function, obtained within the framework of the density-functional theory with the longitudinal expression for the dielectric tensor, are applied for the calculation of the reflectivity. Comparison with the experimental data for shock-compressed xenon is performed.
We consider Brownian motion under resetting in higher dimensions for the case when the return of the particle to the origin occurs at a constant speed. We investigate the behavior of the probability density function (PDF) and of the mean-squared displacement (MSD) in this process. We study two different resetting protocols: exponentially distributed time intervals between the resetting events (Poissonian resetting) and resetting at fixed time intervals (deterministic resetting). We moreover discuss a general problem of the invariance of the PDF with respect to the return speed, as observed in the one-dimensional system for Poissonian resetting, and show that this one-dimensional situation is the only one in which such an invariance can be found. However, the invariance of the MSD can still be observed in higher dimensions.
We theoretically study the phase dynamics in Josephson junctions, which maps onto the oscillatory motion of a pointlike particle in the washboard potential. Under appropriate driving and damping conditions, the Josephson phase undergoes intriguing bistable dynamics near a saddle point in the quasienergy landscape. The bifurcation mechanism plays a critical role in superconducting quantum circuits with relevance to nondemolition measurements such as high-fidelity readout of qubit states. We address the question “what is the probability of capture into either basin of attraction?” and answer it concerning both classical and quantum dynamics. Consequently, we derive the Arnold probability and numerically analyze its implementation of the controlled dynamical switching between two steady states under the various nonequilibrium conditions.
We examine coherent vortices appearing as a result of the inverse cascade of two-dimensional turbulence in a finite box in the case of pumping with arbitrary correlation time in the quasilinear regime. We demonstrate that the existence of the vortices depends on the ratio between the values of the bottom friction coefficient α and the viscous damping of the flow fluctuations at the pumping scale.
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the transient response of a binary Lennard-Jones glass subjected to periodic shear deformation. The amorphous solid is modeled as a three-dimensional Kob-Andersen binary mixture at a low temperature. The cyclic loading is applied to slowly annealed, quiescent samples, which induces irreversible particle rearrangements at large strain amplitudes, leading to stress-strain hysteresis and a drift of the potential energy towards higher values. We find that the initial response to cyclic shear near the critical strain amplitude involves disconnected clusters of atoms with large nonaffine displacements. In contrast, the amplitude of shear stress oscillations decreases after a certain number of cycles, which is accompanied by the initiation and subsequent growth of a shear band.
The Wang-Landau (WL) algorithm has been widely used for simulations in many areas of physics. Our analysis of the WL algorithm explains its properties and shows that the difference of the largest eigenvalue of the transition matrix in the energy space from unity can be used to control the accuracy of estimating the density of states. Analytic expressions for the matrix elements are given in the case of the one-dimensional Ising model. The proposed method is further confirmed by numerical results for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional Ising models and also the two-dimensional Potts model.
We propose Möbius maps as a tool to model synchronization phenomena in coupled phase oscillators. Not only does the map provide fast computation of phase synchronization, it also reflects the underlying group structure of the sinusoidally coupled continuous phase dynamics. We study map versions of various known continuous-time collective dynamics, such as the synchronization transition in the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model of nonidentical oscillators, chimeras in two coupled populations of identical phase oscillators, and KuramotoBattogtokh chimeras on a ring, and demonstrate similarities and differences between the iterated map models and their known continuous-time counterparts.
The Binder cumulant at the phase transition of Ising models on square lattices with ferromagnetic couplings between nearest neighbors and with competing antiferromagnetic couplings between next-nearest neighbors, along only one diagonal, is determined using Monte Carlo techniques. In the phase diagram a disorder line occurs separating regions with monotonically decaying and with oscillatory spin-spin correlations. Findings on the variation of the critical cumulant with the ratio of the two interaction strengths are compared to related recent results based on renormalization-group calculations.
We demonstrate that the Einstein relation for the diffusion of a particle in the random-energy landscape with the Gaussian density of states is an exclusive one-dimensional property and does not hold in higher dimensions. We also consider the analytical properties of the particle velocity and diffusivity for the limit of weak driving force and establish a connection between these properties and dimensionality and spatial correlation of the random-energy landscape.
We suggest a method for calculation of parameters of dispersive shock waves in the framework of Whitham modulation theory applied to nonintegrable wave equations with a wide class of initial conditions corresponding to propagation of a pulse into a medium at rest. The method is based on universal applicability of Whitham’s “number of waves conservation law” as well as on the conjecture of applicability of its soliton counterpart to the above mentioned class of initial conditions which is substantiated by comparison with similar situations in the case of completely integrable wave equations. This allows one to calculate the limiting characteristic velocities of the Whitham modulation equations at the boundary with the smooth part of the pulse whose evolution obeys the dispersionless approximation equations. We show that explicit analytic expressions can be obtained for laws of motion of the edges. The validity of the method is confirmed by its application to similar situations described by the integrable Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations and by comparison with the results of numerical simulations for the generalized KdV and NLS equations.
We report on the results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of porous glassy media, formed in the process of isochoric rapid quenching from a high-temperature liquid state. The transition to a porous solid occurs due to the concurrent processes of phase separation and material solidification. The study is focused on topographies of the model porous structures and their dependence on temperature and average density. To quantify the pore-size distributions,we put forth a scaling relation that provides a satisfactory data collapse in systems with high porosity. We also find that the local density of the solid domains in the porous structures is broadly distributed, and, with increasing average density, a distinct peak in the local density distribution is displaced toward higher values.
It is shown that the anomalous elasticity of membranes affects the profile and thermodynamics of a bubble in van der Waals heterostructures. Our theory generalizes the nonlinear plate theory as well as the membrane theory of the pressurised blister test to incorporate the power-law scale dependence of the bending rigidity and Young's modulus of a two-dimensional crystalline membrane. This scale dependence, caused by long-range interaction of relevant thermal fluctuations (flexural phonons), is responsible for the nonlinear Hooke law observed recently in graphene. It is shown that this anomalous elasticity affects the dependence of the maximal height of the bubble as a function of its radius and temperature. We determine the characteristic temperature above which the anomalous elasticity is important. It is suggested that, for graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures, the predicted anomalous regime is experimentally accessible at room temperature.
A method of windowed spatiotemporal spectral filtering is proposed to segregate different nonlinear wave components and to calculate the surface of free waves. The dynamic kurtosis (i.e., produced by the free wave component) is shown able to contribute essentially to the abnormally large values of the surface displacement kurtosis, according to the direct numerical simulations of realistic sea waves. In this situation the free wave stochastic dynamics is strongly non-Gaussian, and the kinetic equation for sea surface waves fails. Traces of coherent wave patterns are found in the Fourier transform of the directional irregular sea waves; they may form “jets” in the Fourier domain which strongly violate the classic dispersion relation.
Recently a theoretical scheme explaining the vorticity generation by surface waves in liquids was developed [Phys. Rev. Lett.116,054501(2016)]. Here we study how a thin (monomolecular) film presented on the surface of liquid affects the generated vorticity. We demonstrate that the vorticity becomes parametrically larger than for the case of liquid with a free surface, and the parameter is the quality factor of surface waves up to numerical factor. We also discuss the PIV experimental scheme intended to observe the generated vorticity and find that Stokes drift influences the measured velocity field. Explicit expression for the vertical vorticity was obtained.