The article is a critical analysis of the conceptual apparatus in the field of branding and marketing areas. The author discusses the various definitions of «brand» and «brand territory», their diversity and its causes. The aim of this work is clearing the theoretical and practical definition of the territorial brand through the redefinition and extension of the conceptual apparatus. This approach can remove the resulting misunderstanding of the subject activities and «contradictions» in its definition, as well as to expand its theoretical base. Verifying the conceptual and terminological apparatus is not only «theoretical» and «academic» in nature, but has practical importance, which contributes to a more precise determination of the activity of the developer and the customer in the framework of specific project activities and qualitative development of branding in Russia. The article introduces the concept of «brand-identification» to minimize the confusion among the different parts of the same structure - the brand and to address methodological and terminological confusion among developers and customers of regional branding through differencing essentially single and at the same time different parts of the communicative system: the brand and its visual identity (brand identification). The author uses the concept of representation of the territory, image of territory, existing in the minds of consumers and target audience. The image of territory is formed as the scope of project activities through advertising, design, marketing, branding, PR, and is implemented, and reproduced in the information-communicative space of the modern information society. The image of the area and its representation (and the idea of it) is the struggle and unity of the real and the ideal (desired) image of reality. A critical analysis of the attraction’s semiotics by D. Maccannell is the theoretical basis of representation of the territory. It defines a tourist attraction as a sign through the relationship among sight, marker and tourist. The article defines the problem of analyzing the identity (and identification) of the territory with respect to the image areas and not to the real territory, the representation «assigns» identification function, the image becomes inseparable in the popular consciousness from reality. The author draws the conclusion about the necessity of differentiation of concepts «brand» and «brand-identification». The brand of the territory is defined as the representation of areas by means of information and communication tools. Brand-identification of the territory is one of the structural elements, and «attributes» of the brand territory. Representation of territory is a more general concept which can be understanding at the level of conceptualization of place branding, brand identity is more applied, and corresponds to the appropriate level of operationalization.
In article on the basis of first introduced into a wide scientific turn of two documents of the Federal archives (GA RF and RGAE) and memoirs recreated unknown pages of the early history of «Intourist». In particular, the history of the first scientific tourism expedition on the icebreaking steamer «Malygin», organized by «Intourist» in the summer of 1931. Departmental documents allow to see the navigation of the icebreaker, not as a scientific expedition, but as a tourist on a trip to promote «Intourist» and showcase successes of Soviet science and socialist construction in General. From the materials of the Soviet tourist Agency shows that political-ideological and scientific objective of the trip was dominated to the detriment of actually Hiking purposes. Its negative impact on the course of the trip provided primarily organizational confusion, lack of unity of command and the lack of experience of the organization such trips, as in «Intourist» and the ship's crew. But on the background of significant scientific results and generally favorable reviews from foreigners, conquered the beauty of the Arctic, the first experience of Arctic tourism can be considered successful.
The author reveals the character of the Spanish officer who witnessed and participated in tragic events related to joining the Caucasus to Russia in the XIX-th century. It is of particular significance that a Spanish emigrant whose motherland had passed through the same stage in the states development reflects upon the political situation in Russia. Besides, uncovering the historic facts through describing Russian Army soldiers and officers daily routine and relations is of interest.
Relying on archives and other little known documents the author analyzes the problems in arranging the ration tickets supplies for various strata of population during World War II and shows the food rationing specifi cs as a part of the social policy of a nation at war.
In article on the basis of newly introduced into scientific use of archival documents are being reconstructed main trends of housing policy 1920-1930-ies. It is concluded according to the policy in the field of housing and communal services from the general model of economic development (war communism, the NEP and the forced industrialization).