The author considers Islamism not only as a socio-political movement, but he also examines historical and civilizational features of the Near and Middle East, which contributed to the fact that it was just the place where Islamism emerged and manifests itself as a perceptible phenomenon. Historical, ideolo- gical and socio-political reasons for its appearance and widespread use in most Islamic countries are mentioned in the article. The paper regards the historical development of Islamism, the reasons for its victories in the 1970 –1980s, and the rise of the Islamic revival.
Islamism is one of the most complex social phenomena of the present time. It is a many-sided, changing and heterogeneous movement, within the framework of which a very intense ideological and political struggle takes place.
The author pays attention to the deep roots and broad social support of Islamism by the population, its numerous social functions. The definition of Islamism and its main trends (moderate and radical) are given in the article. The reasons for its plurality are explained. It is shown that moderate Islamism, unlike radical one, seeks to integrate into the legal political space, and therefore can be an ally in the struggle against radical Islamism, as well as strong secular political regimes.
The article analyzes the technological shifts which took place in the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries and on the basis of the opportunities provided by the theory of production revolutions the authors thoroughly study the latest production revolution which is denoted as ‘Cybernetic’. There are given some forecasts about its development in the nearest five decades. It is shown that the development of various self-regulating systems will be the main trend of this revolution and the initial transition to the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution will start in the field of medicine (in some its innovative branches). Then, a convergence of innovative and cognitive technologies will start and this will form a complex of MBNRIC technologies (that is a complex of medical, biological and nanotechnologies, robotics, information and cognitive technologies, named after the initial letters of the names of these technologies). By the example of the development of future medical technologies which also involve achievements in other innovative technologies, the authors give a detailed analysis of the future breakthroughs in terms of the development of self-regulating systems with their growing ability to select optimal modes of functioning as well as of other characteristics of the Cybernetic Revolution (resources and energy saving, miniaturization, and individualization).
The global order as a system of certain ideas and regularities predominant in the world politics had started to emerge in Europe in the sixteenth century and was finally established in the nineteenth century. However, an established world order usually endures for three-four decades and then it changes under the influence of the changing circumstances and new balance of power. At present we have just entered the epoch of the changing world order and the formation of its new system. The present article analyzes the started weakening of the world order based on the American hegemony as well as the characteristic features and methods employed by the USA to support their position in the world. The author shows why the absolute American hegemony could hardly remain for a long time and also the way in which globalization has become more profitable for the developing and not for the developed countries; and also how the idea has been gradually formed of an inevitable weakening of the US positions. The article defines the current situation in the international relations as a started reconfiguration of the World System which marks the beginning of the epoch of turbulent events and formation of new coalitions. This will be a kind of a transition period to a more stable new world order which will be established with difficulties. The author gives some ideas about the possible directions and ways this new order will be established, what will be the principles of that order and possible mechanisms of its maintaining.