The article considers a generalized waste management process with the identification of the main stages based on the different regions practice. It is shown that sorting is one of the most important stages of waste management: if it is not presented in this process or carried out properly, the quality of secondary raw materials deteriorates due to the presence of different inclusions. As a result, such secondary raw materials may be unsuitable for further use.
A literature analysis on waste sorting is carried out, and the main modern and promising methods for sorting are systematized. The main problems in using current methods are highlighted and a promising approach to optimizing the sorting process is outlined.
The surface-active substances everywhere are presented on the water surface, they are exposed to waves and currents, and are involved in the processes of ocean-atmosphere exchange. They play a prominent role in the formation of small-scale part of the spectrum of wind waves and affect the manifestations of internal waves on the sea surface. In this paper, on the basis of experimental data, measurements of the surface-active agents "in situ", calculated the probability distributions of elastic films of surface-active substances in the slicks (smoothed areas of the sea surface) for the two oceanic regions (the Pacific Ocean near the island of San Diego (California ) and the central part of the Atlantic Ocean between the equator and the 35th parallel of northern latitude and 1° - 65° W). Obtained almost the same distribution function of elasticity of the films of surface-active substances (in normalized variables), which indicates the existence of a universal "climatic" of the distribution function of elasticity of the films of surfactants. The results can be used to assess the visibility of slicks on the sea surface by remote radio-physical methods.
In this paper, we study the important problem of the registration of the sea waves with the help of pressure recorders installed on the bottom. Dissenting attention is paid to the possibility of using low dispersion highly nonlinear models for the calculation of a bottom pressure through fl uctuations in sea surface, caused by the passage of a solitary wave. In the framework of weakly-dispersive fully-nonlinear theory of long waves (so-called system- Zheleznyak–Pelinovsky) obtained a simplifi ed formula for the variations of pressure at any depth, associated with the passage of progressive waves on the surface. Analyzed the properties of solitary waves and performed their comparison with the known approaches Korteweg-de Vries equation, which is valid for weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive waves. Details are researched bottom pressure fl uctuations caused by the soliton is small and moderate amplitude. It is shown that, starting from the heights of the soliton, roughly equal to half the depth of the basin, the spatial distribution of the pressure becomes two-humped, and the pressure at the center of the wave decreases as compared to the hydrostatic. The motion of a small-amplitude solitary wave (soliton) caused a pressure, the shape of which repeat the shape of the soliton.
Simulation of abnormally large internal waves generated by the baroclinic tide is now quite important due to the increased number of offshore platforms installed on offshore oil and gas fields. The height of the internal waves in many areas of the oceans can be up to 100 m, and these waves become really dangerous. All of this points to the need to study the possible dynamic and catastrophic phenomena accompanying the propagation of internal waves of large amplitude. In terms of the computational analysis of transient wave motion is a very complex task. There was designed widely used numerical code MIT, decisive full hydrodynamic equations with the real bottom topography, the Earth's rotation and turbulent processes. However, this model requires a lot of computing resources, a number of viable solutions to the practical problems of Oceanology. However, even such a complete model is not yet take into account the current practice relatively stable background horizontal - nonuniform stratification, which is typical for the real ocean conditions. That is why the research and analysis of new phenomena is widely used asymptotic model based on the Korteweg–de Vries equation and its generalizations. In this paper we use the asymptotic model for the analysis of the two most important effects in the bottom layer, induced by internal waves: the change in pressure at the bottom and sediment transport. Moving the sediment and erosion of the bottom near the supports are well known to storm surges in the coastal zone. The specifics of the internal waves is their greater length (a few kilometers), so that such waves are always "get" to the bottom, even far from the coast and can lead to erosion of supports oil platforms in deep water. Particularly dangerous abnormally large waves, since the characteristics of erosion is proportional to the cube of the amplitude of the internal wave. In our country, yet the effects of internal waves on the stability of marine structures are not regulated. What is needed is an active study of this problem in theoretical terms, and the accumulation of data on the hazards of internal waves in areas where there are oil and gas platforms.
Instrumental data of the long-term observation of abnormally large waves (freak waves) on the shelf of Sakhalin Island near the village Vsmorie, cape Ostriy, orifi ce of the Izmenchivae Lake, cape Svobodniy and cape Aniwa since 2007 are adduced. These measurements were made with using bottom stations, measuring variations in bottom pressure, induced by surface waves. These sensors do not interfere with navigation and do not affect the ecology of the area. The important problem of the translation variations of bottom pressure in the vertical oscillations of the sea surface is discussed. The linear theory of water waves used here as a fi rst approximation. About 1,400 waves that are abnormal, and their height twice the height of the background waves (amplitude criterion killer waves) are allocated from the total number of individual waves (several million). About 20 waves have a height greater than the height of the background by 2.7 times. The wave group, which was fi xed for the term «three sisters» is typical form of abnormal waves. On average, two or three abnormal waves are recorded per day
In this paper for the explain of the mechanism of formation of smooth strips (slicks) on the sea surface under the action of internal waves are used the film of surface-active substances, attendees everywhere in the sea. Experimental data on the real characteristics of marine films of surface-active substances are used for the calculation of histograms of contrast in the spectrum of wind ripples in the centimeter range for various parameters of the internal wave and wind wave lengths within the "film" mechanism of the effects of internal waves on the spectrum of wind-generated waves. It is shown that the ripple in the wavelength range 2-3 cm contrast weakly depends on the parameters of the internal waves (although with increasing internal wave amplitude), and the average number of 6-7 dB. For greater lengths ripple contrast is strongly dependent on the ratio of the rate of flow of water particles in the internal waves to the phase velocity of the internal wave. This dispersion deviations from average contrast values around the average value, which indicates a strong variation of contrast in each case. Nevertheless, it can be concluded relatively low sensitivity of "film" mechanism of action internal waves on the sea surface to a particular type of surface-active substances.