This article carries out the quantitative analysis of phraseological units with color naming components in the German and English languages. It allows to make generalizations and to reveal various tendencies in two closely related languages. The comparative research of phraseological units - all types of steady verbal complexes is conducted in different parameters in a percentage ratio: phraseological units on each component of a color naming taking into account a phraseological derivation, phraseological units color naming taking into account semantic shift (metaphorical, metonymical, metaforo-metonymical), phraseological polysemanticism of phraseological units color naming, assessment of phraseological units color naming (negative, positive, neutral).
The article provides a comparative analysis of lexical items grouped by themes found in the Russian scholarly slang in XIX and XXI centuries. As a result, groups of similar topics that describe studies, leisure, bad habits, relations between students and teachers, as well as students` in-group relations have been identified. The examination of the original and modern school slang has revealed general trends in the ways new words were adopted into vocabulary, with main practices being: metaphorisation of words found in everyday speech, word-building and adopting words from foreign languages. Sequences of synonyms related to specific slang words can be identified within certain topics – the phenomenon that demonstrates the importance of a particular concept for slang users. Numerous groups of synonyms define affiliation of students, time of studies, their academic performance, behavior and other characteristics, as well as slang words denoting “teacher”. The most abundant groups of synonyms represent the topic “Bad habits” incorporating words and word combinations with the meaning “to consume alcohol”. Comparative analysis of the vocabulary existing in the Russian scholarly slang of XIX and XXI centuries reveals that it`s not always possible to draw parallels between topics as there are themes characteristic entirely either for XIX or XXI centuries. For example, the topic “Corporal punishment in an educational institution”, that had a lot of slang words in XIX century didn`t make it into modern dictionaries, as the above-mentioned phenomenon ceased to exist, whereas in XIX century there were no lexical units that stood for “narcotics” or “computer”, since there were no such concepts at that time. The research has uncovered slang lexical units that first appeared in XIX century, but still exist in XXI century, and either have kept or completely changed their original meaning. All findings have been supported by examples from lexicographical sources.
The article deals with the research of the German youth jargon using lexicographic sources of the second half of the XXth century. Semantic parallels with the student language of the fi rst half of the XIXth century are drawn. The article demonstrates the differences in the youth jargon of Eastern and Western Germany.
The article presents an analysis of Leonid Aronzon’s poem «Message to the Clinic» (1963). The text is analyzed for the functioning of multi-level repetitions; cultural context – in terms of the poet’s religious identity and the mindset of uncensored poetry of the 1960s; the subtext – regarding the biography of Aronzon, as well as the trials of Joseph Brodsky and Vladimir Shveigolts. The total repetitions in the «Message to the Clinic» organize the poem composition and, contrary to expectations, do not simplify, but consolidate its semantic structure. In the poem it is necessary to single out several significant levels at which one can observe realization of the repetition principle as augmentation of meaning. Firstly, this is the level of vocabulary at which the repeated word expands its meaning to «hieroglyphic» one. Secondly, this is the level of syntax, where the repetition of figures and the variation of equivalent constructions contribute to the formation of identical rhythmic-intonation blocks, as in suggestive speech genres such as spells or mantras. These levels, in turn, are closely connected with the development of the text composition: the «unique», not repetitive, becomes significant. Thematic variation also affects the development of fundamental images, creating spatial-temporal polyphony. In addition, the totality of the repetition principle makes it possible to establish clear semantic links on large intervals of a specific poetic text and in general in the space of Aronzon's poetry. The form «Message to the Clinic», its religious and mythological themes, as well as the appellative orientation can be interpreted through the prism of 1) New Age ideology, 2) so-called «poor religion», 3) specifics of the work of the Soviet psychiatry with the literary underground of the 1960s.
Due to methodological and theoretical variety in approaches as well as in contingences while investigating invitation speech acts, the findings concerning their pragmatic characteristics have turned out to be different. This paper is an attempt to determine sociocultural features, pragmatic implications and representation in the dialogue corpus of various types of invitations in Russian culture using contextual interpretation and pragmalinguistic analysis. The findings demonstrate a frequent usage of addressee-oriented declaratives, followed by imperatives, questions and addresser-oriented declaratives with the meaning of a command. All these invitations are in fact direct obligatory impositives. However, within the context of Russian culture they reveal the use of positive politeness strategies. The speech act of invitation cannot function on its own – it is semantically and pragmatically connected to pre-invitation sequence, which makes it a complex speech act. The benefactive status of the addresser is enhanced due to the obligatory nature of the invitation which also ensures the speaker`s confidence about the successful outcome of the interaction, therefore there is no need for the inviter to resort to indirectness and negative politeness strategies. There are cases of self-invitations where an invitee takes the initiative, whereas an inviter has to perform a speech act with a weakened illocutionary force.
Keywords: invitation speech act; pragmatic characteristics; pragmalinguistic analysis; positive and negative politeness strategies; impositives; Russian language culture.
The article deals with the problem of the Internet-communication of German youth nowadays, in particular, the peculiarities of using abbreviations. Abbreviations include acronyms and apocopes. Special attention is focused on the abbreviations borrowed from the English language. Use of abbreviations appears to be a general tendency in the youth sociolect of the German, English, French and Russian languages. For every case examples are given from popular websites, youth forums, and from dictionaries.