This article carries out the quantitative analysis of phraseological units with color naming components in the German and English languages. It allows to make generalizations and to reveal various tendencies in two closely related languages. The comparative research of phraseological units - all types of steady verbal complexes is conducted in different parameters in a percentage ratio: phraseological units on each component of a color naming taking into account a phraseological derivation, phraseological units color naming taking into account semantic shift (metaphorical, metonymical, metaforo-metonymical), phraseological polysemanticism of phraseological units color naming, assessment of phraseological units color naming (negative, positive, neutral).
The article provides a comparative analysis of lexical items grouped by themes found in the Russian scholarly slang in XIX and XXI centuries. As a result, groups of similar topics that describe studies, leisure, bad habits, relations between students and teachers, as well as students` in-group relations have been identified. The examination of the original and modern school slang has revealed general trends in the ways new words were adopted into vocabulary, with main practices being: metaphorisation of words found in everyday speech, word-building and adopting words from foreign languages. Sequences of synonyms related to specific slang words can be identified within certain topics – the phenomenon that demonstrates the importance of a particular concept for slang users. Numerous groups of synonyms define affiliation of students, time of studies, their academic performance, behavior and other characteristics, as well as slang words denoting “teacher”. The most abundant groups of synonyms represent the topic “Bad habits” incorporating words and word combinations with the meaning “to consume alcohol”. Comparative analysis of the vocabulary existing in the Russian scholarly slang of XIX and XXI centuries reveals that it`s not always possible to draw parallels between topics as there are themes characteristic entirely either for XIX or XXI centuries. For example, the topic “Corporal punishment in an educational institution”, that had a lot of slang words in XIX century didn`t make it into modern dictionaries, as the above-mentioned phenomenon ceased to exist, whereas in XIX century there were no lexical units that stood for “narcotics” or “computer”, since there were no such concepts at that time. The research has uncovered slang lexical units that first appeared in XIX century, but still exist in XXI century, and either have kept or completely changed their original meaning. All findings have been supported by examples from lexicographical sources.
The article deals with the research of the German youth jargon using lexicographic sources of the second half of the XXth century. Semantic parallels with the student language of the fi rst half of the XIXth century are drawn. The article demonstrates the differences in the youth jargon of Eastern and Western Germany.
The article deals with the problem of the Internet-communication of German youth nowadays, in particular, the peculiarities of using abbreviations. Abbreviations include acronyms and apocopes. Special attention is focused on the abbreviations borrowed from the English language. Use of abbreviations appears to be a general tendency in the youth sociolect of the German, English, French and Russian languages. For every case examples are given from popular websites, youth forums, and from dictionaries.