Philanthropy includes non-coerced (voluntary) giving of time (volunteering) as well as giving money, things, and blood or body organs to help other individuals or charities outside one’s household without (full) remuneration. Philanthropy is a general example of altruistic behavior, often based on a sense of morality, and contributes to human social solidarity. The author has been developing an interdisciplinary, general theory of individual volunteer activity for several decades. An overview of the latest version is presented briefly, with references to fuller versions and also to literature reviews bearing on the value and validity of the theory. Some possible reasons are presented why so few researchers have tested the theory adequately in the past. The two most important reasons seem to be (1) the intrinsically interdisciplinary nature of the variables needed and especially (2) the social structural barriers to interdisciplinary theory posed by the existing social science academic disciplines. ARNOVA (www.arnova.org) can help, as can ISTR (www.istr.org) and ICSERA (www.icsera.org).
The article examines attempts of civil society representatives to resist the autocracy in the mass death penalty from the end of XIX to the early XX century. Opinions and explanations designed to influence the decision to exclude the death penalty from the criminal punishment system of public groups that are not indifferent in favor of the inexpediency of imposing death sentences are presented. Among them are scientists, researchers, writers, lawyers, different professional communities, and the State Duma of the first and second convocations.
The article focuses on the relationship between NGO sources of funding, including the number of funding sources, on one hand, and the evaluation of NGO effectiveness and their economic situation, on the other hand. Based on the all-Russia NGO survey, the author concludes that most NGOs in Russia tend to diversify their funding sources. NGO leaders tend to evaluate the activity of their organizations more positively in direct correlation with the number of funding sources. The more diversified funding sources are the higher rating NGO effectiveness receives. The level of NGO transparency and reporting requirements in compliance with requirements of specific funding sources also influence the evaluation of NGO effectiveness. In terms of NGO economic situation, three to four sources of funding can be considered ideal. However, tapping this many funding sources may hamper the mission of an NGO owing to the fundraising activity of its leader. In this connection, the article provides a number of recommendations to improve the effectiveness of seeking and accumulating funds from different sources by NGOs for the implementation of their projects and programs.
With a view to developing civil society and addressing social policy issues, the government has been allocating a considerable amount of funding for NGO support over a number of years. Given the growing support of NGOs by the government and the increasing diversity of the relevant programs at the federal, regional and municipal levels, it is essential to develop a methodology of evaluating the effectiveness of these programs. The article examines the scope, structure and characteristics of NGO support by the government in Russia, among other things, from the point of view of social and political goals pursued by government agencies. Based on the analysis of methodologies for evaluating programs of NGO support, which are applied by public and private donors abroad, and proceeding from the specifics of government support of NGOs in Russia, the article makes a conclusion that it is necessary to develop a universal, flexible and easily applicable methodology for the evaluation of the effectiveness of public and municipal programs for NGO support in Russia.
Demographic population ageing raises new questions about the role of the older generation. Is it true that in the old age people become worthless and a burden for the younger ones or, on the opposite, with some rules observed, may be a valuable resource for the society? In this article we identify current trends in social policy towards older people and discuss effect of volunteering on older people and its meaning for the society, consider factors affecting older people’s involvement in volunteering. Special attention is given to organizational factors.
Frontier authorities of the Russian Empire in Kazakhstan and Turkestan paid a lot of attention to a problem of improvement of rights of women and its broadening. Legal mechanisms of this process firstly provided more rights of women in family life as well as opportunities of defending their rights at courts (particularly, by appealing of decisions of national courts in Russian official courts).
Based on international experience the article features an anlysis of systemic problematic implications of government funding for nonprofit organizations.
Researchers of civil control are interested in public interest as legal category. Civil control is an observation, verification and appreciation in accordance with public interests by government. Civil control is exercised for the purpose defense and protection of the public interests.
This article considers the freedom of the press concept in liberal legal doctrine of late XIX – early XX century. The author presents an overview, how the place of freedom of the press in the system of individual rights and personal freedoms was determined; characterizes ideas of legal scholars concerning optimal limits and possible guarantees of realization of freedom of the press.
The article presents the analysis of influence of Hegelian concept of civil society on the ideas of Russian liberal legal school and works by V.M. Gessen, N.M. Korkunov, P.I. Novgorodtsev and B.N. Chicherin.
People and borders: New dimension of reading the Russian citizenship history. Review of the monography: Eric Lohr. Russian Citizenship: From Empire to Soviet Union. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. 288 p.