Using data collected from Russian companies, the author examines their use of employment agencies (agency workers) during 2008–11. During this period, the number of companies using such agencies rose, despite a decline in the proportion of employees hired through them. The study established that small companies taxed under a simplified system are more likely to use an employment agency. Probit models were used to analyze companies’ decisions to hire through agencies, taking into account the role of sector, financial position, the business’s technical complexity and investment in its own development, and personnel training.
The innovation factors at work at companies and the estimation of the effectiveness of innovation remain pressing topics in the study of the modern economy. The specific nature of the innovation process has led to the growing popularity of structural modeling under the CDM approach in academic research. It allows us to study the effect of the company’s innovative efforts on its bottom line. This article analyzes empirical research that has been carried out using the CDM approach.
This article evaluates future freight traffic along the northern latitudinal corridor. It shows possible bottlenecks on the latitudinal main lines connecting the country’s east and west. It also gives historical analogies for making strategic decisions with respect to transport projects in Russia’s Arctic Zone. In addition, it justifies the advisability of using national economic criteria to evaluate large infrastructure projects. It also demonstrates how important it is for annual economic growth of even 2 percent to create a new route across the Ural Range on the border of the Komi Republic, Sverdlovsk Oblast, and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug.
The purpose of this article is to analyze similarities and differences in values between Russians and other Europeans. In doing so, we plan to compare Russia with other countries in terms of average values indexes; to investigate in detail precisely what subgroups within the country, from perspective of the values they share, make up the Russian population (we assume that this analysis will show similarities and differences between the residents of various countries in greater detail than a comparison of averages); to reveal, using multiple regression analysis, the role of various determinants that influence values; and to determine the correlation between the influence of individuals’ country and their sociodemographic characteristics.
The analysis of competition policy during economic crisis is motivated by the fact that competition is a key factor in productivity levels. The latter, in turn, influences the scope and length of economic recession. In many Russian markets, buyers’ gains decline because of weak competition, since suppliers are reluctant to cut prices despite decreasing demand. Data on prices in Russia and abroad in the second half of 2008 show asymmetric price rigidity. At least two questions are important in an economic crisis: the “division of labor” between proactive and protective tools of competition policy and the impact of anticrisis policy on competition. Protective competition policy is insufficient in a transition economy, especially during a crisis, and it should be supplemented with well-designed industrial policy measures that do not contradict the goals of competition. The preferred tools of anticrisis policy are those that do not restrain competition.
The article investigates how Russian companies cooperate with research organizations to conduct research and development in order to implement technological innovation. In order to assess behavioral changes, an analysis was carried out at the micro level on the basis of empirical data gathered from a survey of the leaders of more than 600 Russian manufacturing companies (2011–12) and about 350 research institutions and universities (2012). It identifies the key factors determining company demand for cooperation with research organizations, the main barriers to the development of scientific and industrial cooperation, and the specific nature of these barriers for different partners. The article considers the tools and features that are available under Russian innovation policy for stimulating partnerships, and also assesses the effect of this policy on the cooperative behavior of companies.
The paper studies the development of corporate governance in Russian companies both in economic growth and world crisis context. Official statistical data, reviews of analytical agencies and the cases of large companies were used.
This article assesses the potential for further developing targeted social assistance programs in Russia on the basis of need assessment. These programs are considered within the system of social assistance at the federal and regional level in terms of funding and coverage of the population. It is shown that at most a quarter of regional budget expenditures in this area could be refocused toward need assessment–based programs. The impediments to targeted social assistance programs in Russia are analyzed, and three changes that are necessary for their further development are proposed.
The article is devoted to electronic self-employment as a new labor-market phenomenon in the information society. The authors analyze the growing sector of freelancers working remotely via the Internet. Extensive quantitative data from online standardized surveys reveal the main demographic, social and professional characteristics of Russian-speaking e-lancers, as well as motivational, organizational and financial issues.
The article considers different approaches, all based on detailed statistical data, to determine which industries and commodities have high, medium, or low sensitivity to exchange rate fluctuations. The authors conclude that any exchange rate policy is an inappropriate tool to influence the structure of Russian economy.
The article analyzes trends in fixed assets formation and fixed investment in Russia’s transition economy. It is shown that the official Rosstat approach to measuring fixed assets and fixed investment may substantially understate fixed assets renovation and replacement rates. The depth of the decline in investment spending during the transition period might therefore be substantially overstated. This bias may be explained by severe difficulties in measuring price and capital replacement trends in first years of transition. Alternative estimates of physical volume indexes of fixed assets and investment in fixed capital by fifteen main industrial sectors and branches during 1991−2003 are derived and industry-specific investment and fixed assets trends are discussed. These alternative fixed asset and investment estimates suggest that conventional views on investment and capital stock trends in the Russian economy need to be revised.