The present paper deals with the latest version of Chalmers’ zombie argument which constitutes a serious challenge to materialism in the philosophy of mind. That version includes T- and I- clauses aimed to cope with some recent objections. J. Levine has demonstrated that so-called “Q factor” plays an important role in the argument justification. “Q factor”, though connected with “a priori entailment” problem, is considered by J. Levine apart from “I factor”. In accordance with his view we propose an alternative and more fundamental explanation for both “Q” and “I” factors’ role in the zombie argument. The key point of our approach is that supervenience conditional should be reformulated as a counterfactual one.
The article presents a theoretical survey of different ways to analyze the effect coexistence of spot and forward markets has on incentives for non-competitive behavior. There is no common opinion in economic theory concerning the influence of forward contracts on incentives for non-competitive behavior in spot market. Several studies support the hypothesis that introduction of forward trading increases competition in the spot market by erosion of market power. But while it can reduce market power of an individual firm, forward trading facilitates tacit collusion in the market. This ambiguity demonstrates complexity of economic research, aimed at increasing social welfare.
This article provides an analysis of philosophical background of two-dimensionalism in general and some its particular variants. The paper demonstrates that two-dimensionalism should be treated not as artificial addition to conventional possible worlds semantics but as its natural generalization. It is also shown how ontological and epistemological problems (the correlation between primary and secondary intensions, apriority and necessity, the nature of «mixed» truths etc.) could be converted into pragmatic ones.
The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of pragmatic constraints. The fact that gricean maxims are neither pure descriptive rules nor pure prescriptive ones is one of the puzzles of early pragmatic theories. I try to clarify the problem of ontological status of pragmatic constraints by means of game theory and optimality theory.
This paper deals with some problems of matching contemporary analytic theology to medieval scholasticism. It is demonstrated that those “weak points” of Christian creed which the former are trying to vindicate cannot be understood properly within the “states of affairs ontology”, but only in terms of the “ontology of things”.
The main thesis of the article is the idea that the semantics of possible worlds (which at the moment is very popular among analytics) in order to become a really effective tool for dealing with purely theological questions should be based on a multilevel ontology, a strict construction of which is usually neglected.
The study explores the fundamental principle of the rationalist tradition, according to which reality is extrinsic to the subject. It reveals the inconsistency of that principle, unable to draw a distinction between the «subjective» and «objective», «external» and «internal», «fictitious» and «real». The author, concludes that the very concept of «external reality» is inexpressible and, therefore, must be regarded as a value that cannot be conveyed through language.
This article reconstructs the understanding of a speech act in Paolo Virno`s political philosophy. In postfordism as a modern mode of production, we can observe erasure of boundaries between labor and action. This stems from the changes in forms of communication. Labor acquires the features of political action, since it involves the need for constant communicative cooperation between individuals. On this basis, Virno tries to justify the theory of language as a public space in which each separate speech act can be seen as an elementary form of political action. The main features of this action will be spectacularity and virtuosity. The author tries to substantiate the connection between publicity and language act through the concept of potentiality – a special feature of modern subjectivity – or, the multitude, that arises under the infl uence of the modern media.